Lower Extremity-Hops and Foot

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  1. Apophysitis of the Calcaneus
    • E: Inflammation of apophysis where achilles tendon inserts. 
    • S&S: Pain occurs at posterior heel below the attachment of achilles. Pain during exercise and subsides at rest.
  2. Retrocalcaneal Bursitis
    • E: Inflammation of bursa between bursa and achilles. Generally chronic in nature due to pressure and rubbing from shoe. 
    • S&S: Swelling, pain with palpation superior and anterior of insertion of tendon.
  3. Cuboid Subluxation
    • E: Caused by Pronation and Trauma
    • S&S: Sometimes confused with plantar fasciitis. Pain along 4th and 5th metatarsals as well as over cuboid.
  4. Tarsometatarsal Fracture/ Dislocation (Lisfranc Injury)
    • E: Caused by ankle being plantar flexed with rearfoot locked then a sudden forceful hyperplantarflexion resulting in dorsal displacement of proximal end of metatarsals.
    • S&S: Pain and Inability to bear weight. Swelling and tenderness over dorsum of foot.
  5. Jones Fracture
    • E: Most common. Direct force or inversion and plantar flexion of foot. Or stress.
    • S&S: Immediate pain and swelling over 5th metatarsal.
  6. Morton's Neuroma
    • E: Neuroma located between 3rd and 4th metatarsal heads. Irritation increases with collapsing of transverse arch.
    • S&S: Excessive Foot pronation
  7. Great Toe Hyperextension (Turf Toe)
    • E: Hyperextension causes sprain to MP joint. Can be acute or chronic. 
    • S&S: Pain and swelling in and around MP joint. Pain worsens when trying to push off.
  8. Bunions (hallucis valgus deformity) Bunionettes (Tailor's Bunion)
    • E: 1st metatarsal head/ 5th metatarsal head. Caused by pointed shoes, narrow or short. Bursa over joint can become inflammed. Joint becomes enlarged causing malalignment of great toe. 
    • S&S: Tenderness, swelling, pain with walking (gait)
  9. Plantar Fasciitis
    • E: Normal term for pain in proximal arch and heel. Many etiologies.
    • S&S: Pain in anterior heel usually at attachment site on calcaneus. Most common to feel pain in morning or weight bearing after not weight bearing. Pain lessens after a few steps.
  10. Pes Cavus Foot (High Arch)
    • E: Excessive Supination also known as Clawfoot or hollowfoot. 
    • S&S: Foot pain, hammertoe, abnormal shortening of the achilles, calluses on ball and heel of foot.
  11. Pes Planus Foot (Flat Foot)
    • E: Refers to type of foot in which medial longitudinal arch looks flat. Generally associated with excessive foot pronation. 
    • S&S: Foot deformity, tight shoes, trauma to ligaments, overweight, too much exercise.
Card Set
Lower Extremity-Hops and Foot
Hops, MMT, Special tests, Foot injuries
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