Lower Extremity-Hops and Foot
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Apophysitis of the Calcaneus
- E: Inflammation of apophysis where achilles tendon inserts.
- S&S: Pain occurs at posterior heel below the attachment of achilles. Pain during exercise and subsides at rest.
- E: Inflammation of bursa between bursa and achilles. Generally chronic in nature due to pressure and rubbing from shoe.
- S&S: Swelling, pain with palpation superior and anterior of insertion of tendon.
- E: Caused by Pronation and Trauma
- S&S: Sometimes confused with plantar fasciitis. Pain along 4th and 5th metatarsals as well as over cuboid.
Tarsometatarsal Fracture/ Dislocation (Lisfranc Injury)
- E: Caused by ankle being plantar flexed with rearfoot locked then a sudden forceful hyperplantarflexion resulting in dorsal displacement of proximal end of metatarsals.
- S&S: Pain and Inability to bear weight. Swelling and tenderness over dorsum of foot.
- E: Most common. Direct force or inversion and plantar flexion of foot. Or stress.
- S&S: Immediate pain and swelling over 5th metatarsal.
- E: Neuroma located between 3rd and 4th metatarsal heads. Irritation increases with collapsing of transverse arch.
- S&S: Excessive Foot pronation
Great Toe Hyperextension (Turf Toe)
- E: Hyperextension causes sprain to MP joint. Can be acute or chronic.
- S&S: Pain and swelling in and around MP joint. Pain worsens when trying to push off.
Bunions (hallucis valgus deformity) Bunionettes (Tailor's Bunion)
- E: 1st metatarsal head/ 5th metatarsal head. Caused by pointed shoes, narrow or short. Bursa over joint can become inflammed. Joint becomes enlarged causing malalignment of great toe.
- S&S: Tenderness, swelling, pain with walking (gait)
- E: Normal term for pain in proximal arch and heel. Many etiologies.
- S&S: Pain in anterior heel usually at attachment site on calcaneus. Most common to feel pain in morning or weight bearing after not weight bearing. Pain lessens after a few steps.
Pes Cavus Foot (High Arch)
- E: Excessive Supination also known as Clawfoot or hollowfoot.
- S&S: Foot pain, hammertoe, abnormal shortening of the achilles, calluses on ball and heel of foot.
Pes Planus Foot (Flat Foot)
- E: Refers to type of foot in which medial longitudinal arch looks flat. Generally associated with excessive foot pronation.
- S&S: Foot deformity, tight shoes, trauma to ligaments, overweight, too much exercise.
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