Microbiology

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Author:
kaori
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282819
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Microbiology
Updated:
2014-09-12 11:23:30
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Introduction Medical Microbiology
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Introduction to Medical Microbiology
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  1. ___ is the study of algae.
    Phycology
  2. Nutritionally, fungi are described as ______ chemoheterotrophs.
    Absorptive
  3. Mycology is the study of ____.
    Fungi
  4. Carolus Linnaeus assigned a two-part name consisting of the genus and species to all organisms; this "two name-naming" is called binomial _____.
    Nomencalture
  5. Injecting the mild ____ virus into people to build up immunity against the deadly smallpox virus is an example of the procedure called vaccination, discovered by Edward Jenner.
    Cowpox
  6. Kingdom ____ includes organisms with chitin cell walls.
    Fungi
  7. Robert Hooke first used the term "____" in a biological way, while observing thin slices of cork under a microscope.
    Cell
  8. The blue-green mold ____ was the original source of the first major antibiotic, penicillin.
    Penicillium
  9. ____ is the study of fungi.
    Mycology
  10. The genus part of the scientific name is a Latin ____ (part of speech)
    Noun
  11. The genus ____ includes hardy bacteria that can digest unusual foods such as crude oil, antiseptics, disinfectants, and antibiotics.
    Pseudomonas
  12. Kingdom ____ includes protozoans, slime molds, and algae.
    Protista
  13. Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of an infected ____ tick.
    Deer
  14. Domain ____ includes the single kingdom Archaebaceria.
    Archaea
  15. Viruses and large molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids are measured in units called ____ (nm).
    Nanometers
  16. Rhizobium (found in the root nodules of plants called legumes) changes N2 into NHand then into nitrates and/or nitrites in process called ____.
    Nitrogen Fixation
  17. DNA ____ is a procedure used to measure how similar the DNA is between two species.
    Hybirdization
  18. In 1665, Robert ____ is credited with coining the term "cell" while observing a thin slice of cork under a microscope.
    Hooke
  19. Bacteriology is the study of ____, which are organisms with prokaryotic cells.
    Bacteria
  20. _____'s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology  organizes bacteria by observable or testable traits so they can be identified.
    Bergey's
  21. Antonie von _____ discovered microscopic pond water organisms he called "wee beasties;" he also used his microscope to see his own blood cells, bacteria from his tooth tarter, and even his sperm swimming!
    Leeuwenhoek
  22. Domain Bacteria includes the single kingdom ____.
    Bacteria
  23. Plant cell walls are composed of the polysaccharide ____.
    Cellulose
  24. The small size of cell helps to maximize the surface area to ____ ratio.
    Volume
  25. Joseph ____ applied the germ theory of disease to medical procedures and developed aseptic technique; soaking surgical instruments and dressings in carbolic acid (phenol) killed bacteria in wounds.
    Lister
  26. ____ is a form of symbiosis where one partner of the relationship benefits, and the other parter (called the host) is harmed in some way.
    Parasitism
  27. Alexander ____ discovered first major antibiotic, named penicillin.
    Fleming
  28. ____ is a form of symbiosis where both partners benefit from the relationship.
    Mutualism
  29. Injecting the mild cowpox virus into people to build up immunity against the deadly ____ virus is an example of the procedure called vaccination, discovered by Edward Jenner.
    Smallpox
  30. ____ DNA technology (or genetic engineering) has enabled us to produce human insulin and human growth hormone in bacteria.
    Recombinant
  31. The Cell Theory states that cells are the structural, ____, and reproductive units of life.
    Functional
  32. Cells are measured in metric units called ____ (μm)
    Micrometer
  33. ____ technique was developed by Joseph Lister; involves killing bacteria on surgical instruments and wound dressings with phenol (carbolic acid).
    Aseptic
  34. Protists, fungi, plants and animals all have ____ cells, containing a membrane-found nucleus.
    Eukaryotic
  35. The first major antibiotic discovered was ____, produced by a blue-green mold "contaminating" bacterial cultures being studied by Alexander Fleming.
    Penicillin
  36. For Escherichia coli, coli is the _____. 
    Species
  37. Carolus Linnaeus assigned a two-part name consisting of the genus and species to all organisms; this "two name-naming" is called ____ nomenclature.
    Binomial
  38. Many microbes are involved in the ____ process, recycling atoms from dead organisms back into the ecosystem.
    Decay
  39. In genetic engineering, human genes for insulin or growth hormone are combined with a small loop of bacterial DNA called a ____; when the recombinant DNA is inserted into a bacterium, it begins to produce the desired protein.
    Plasmid
  40. ___ means "before a nucleus."
    Prokaryotic
  41. Carolus ____ is the "Father or Taxonomy" who started the biological classification system still in used today.
    Linnaeus
  42. Cell walls of fungi are composed of the polysaccharide _____.
    Chitin
  43. ____ provides the genetic instructions for all cells.
    DNA
  44. Enzymes are biological ___ that speed up chemical reactions within cells.
    Catalysts
  45. ____ is the study of protozoans, such as Amoeba.
    Protozoology
  46. A _____ is a "partnership" between two different organisms; it may benefit one or both.
    Symbiosis
  47. Some bacteria are capable of ____; using sunlight energy to combine carbon dioxide and water into glucose, and also release oxygen as a by-product.
    Photosynthese
  48. Louis ____ disproved spontaneous generation with his famous swan-neck flask experiment; he also showed that living test cause fermentation of grapes into wine, and that bacteria can "spoil" the wine by further breaking down the alcohol into acid.
    Pasteur
  49. Aseptic technique was developed by Joseph Lister; involves killing bacteria on surgical instruments and wound dressings with ____ (carbolic acid)
    Phenol
  50. Grouping organisms in a classification system should indicate the amount of ____ relatedness.
    Genetic
  51. Recombinant DNA technology (or genetic engineering) has enabled us to produce human insulin and human ___ ____ in bacteria
    Growth Hormone
  52. In 1969, Robert ____ proposed a 5 kingdom classification system based on cell type, body form and mode of nutrition.
    Whittaker
  53. A major ecological importance of microbes is that they form the base of ___ chains and ___ webs in nature.
    Food
  54. ____ disease is transmitted by the bite of an infected deer tick.
    Lyme
  55. Recombinant DNA technology (or genetic engineering) has enabled us to produce human ___ and human growth hormone in bacteria
    Insulin
  56. The small size of cell helps to maximize the ___ ___ to volume ratio.
    Surface area
  57. One use of bacteria in bioremediation is during _____ treatment, providing safe drinking water.
    Sewage
  58. Using microbes to help clean up oil spills and treat sewage are example of ____.
    Bioremediation
  59. In order to manufacture new parts, cells must be able to obtain and use ____.
    Energy
  60. The species part of a scientific name is a Latin _____ (part of speech).
    Adjetive
  61. ____ is the newest classification category, higher than kingdom; There are three of these, Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.
    Domain
  62. Rudolf Virchow was the first person to witness ___ ___ under the microscope.
    Cell Division
  63. Koch's postulates provides a _____ (a sequence of experimental steps) to determine which microbe causes a specific disease.
    Protocol
  64. Injecting the mild cowpox virus into people to build up immunity against the deadly smallpox virus is an example of the procedure called _____, discovered by Edward Jenner.
    Vaccination
  65. A scientific name is composed of two parts; the genus and ____.
    Species
  66. In the 1700's, Carolus Linnaeus based his classification system in ____ because it was a non changing 'dead' language, all educated people of the day studied it, and many other languages are based in it.
    Latin
  67. The process by which living yeast cells turn glucose into alcohol is called _____.
    Fermentation
  68. Rudolf Vichow was the first person to witness a cell dividing into two cells' proposed the theory of ____ saying cells come from pre-existing cells.
    Biogenesis
  69. An agricultural application of our knowledge of nitrogen-fixation is called ___ ___.
    Crop rotation
  70. Kingdom ____ includes muticellular, eukaryotic organisms with cellulose cell walls that are photoautorophs.
    Plantae
  71. Hybrid DNA is composed of two strands from different species' the fewer hydrogen bonds holding them together, the ___ genetic relatedness there is between the two species.
    Less
  72. Domain Archaea contains the single kingdom____.
    Archaebacteria
  73. The erroneous belief of ___ ___ was finally disproved by Louis Pasteur and his famous swan-neck flask experiment.
    Spontaneous Generation
  74. The ___ ___ ___ ___ states that microbes cause disease; at first, this was actually hard for  people to believe because they thought disease was punishment from God.
    Germ Theory of Diease
  75. Antonie von Leeuwenhoek referred to the myriad legumes where it changes Ninto NHand then into ____ and/or nitrites in a process called nitrogen-fixation
    Nitrates
  76. ATP is the ____ storage molecule of all cells.
    Energy
  77. Microbiology is the study of _____ (sometimes called microorganisms) that can only be seen well with a microscope.
    Microbes
  78. The plural of genus is ____.
    Genera
  79. Members of kingdom Animalia have eukaryotic cells without a cell wall, are muticellular, and are ____ chemoheterotrophs.
    Ingestive
  80. The Cell Theory states that cells are the structural, functional, and ____ units of life.
    Reproductive
  81. Nutritionally, plants are described as ___ because they use sunlight energy to build carbon compounds from CO2.
    Photoautotrophs
  82. Because Pseudomonas can digest crude oil, it can be used to help bioremediation of ___ ___.
    Oil Spill
  83. Protozoology is they study of ____, such as Amoeba.
    Protozoans
  84. For Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus is the ____.
    Genus
  85. ____ (genus) (lives in the root nodules of plants legumes) where it changes N2 into NH and then into nitrates and/or nitrites in process called nitrogen-fixation.
    Rhizobium
  86. Rhizobium (lives in the root nodules of plants _____) where it changes N2 into NH3  and then into nitrates and/or nitrites in process called nitrogen-fixation.
    Legumes
  87. _____ is a form of symbiosis where one partner of the relationship benefits, while the other partner is neither helped nor harmed.
    Commensalism
  88. The process of briefly heating alcohol to kill off spoilage bacteria is called _____.
    Pasteurization
  89. The Cell Theory states that cells are the ______, functional, and reproductive units of life.
    Structural
  90. _____ is the study of microbes (sometimes called microorganisms) that can only be seen well with a microscope.
    Microbiology
  91. ____ is the study of disease.
    Pathology
  92. Rhizobium (lives in the root nodules of plants legumes) where it changes N2 into NH3  and then into nitrates and/or ____ in process called nitrogen-fixation.
    Nitrites
  93. Prokaryotic means "before a ____" and eukaryotic means "true or good ____"
    Nucleus
  94. Robert ____ came up with a protocol (a sequence of experimental steps) to determine which microbe causes a specific disease.
    Koch
  95. During the DNA hybridization procedure, ____ enzymes are used to cut separate strands of DNA into short pieces.
    Restriction
  96. The ___ ___ states that cells are the structural, functional, and reproductive units of life.
    Cell Theory
  97. Joseph Lisster applied the germ theory of disease to ____ procedures and developed aseptic technique; soaking surgical instruments and dressings in carbolic acid (phenol) killed bacteria in wounds.
    Medical
  98. The ____ is the partner that is harmed in a parasitic symbiosis.
    Host
  99. ___ are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells.
    Enzymes
  100. Domain ____ includes kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
    Eukarya
  101. The Germ Theory of Disease emerged during the ___ ___ of microbiology (from 1860 to 1920) due to many discoveries about microbes and diseases.
    Golden age
  102. The ___ ___ (or black death) epidemic of 1350 resulted in the death of 1 out of ever 2 Europeans.
    Bubonic Plague
  103. ____ is the area of microbiology that studies bacteria.
    Bacteriology
  104. Rudolf _____ was the first person to witness a cell dividing into two cells' proposed the theory of biogenesis saying cells come from pre-existing cells.
    Vichow
  105. ___ is the energy storage molecule of all cells.
    ATP
  106. Robert Whittaker's 1969 kingdom ___ was eventually divided into two kingdoms, Archaebateria and Bacteria.
    Monera
  107. ___ is the study of viruses.
    Virology
  108. Phycology is the study of ____.
    Algae
  109. Koch's ____ provided a protocol (a sequence of experimental steps) to determine which microbe causes a specific disease.
    Postulates
  110. Edward ___ discovered vaccines as prevention for disease.
    Jenner
  111. Members of kingdom ____ have eukaryotic cells without a cell wall, are multicellular , and are ingestive chemoheterotrophs.
    Animalia
  112. Louis Pasteur's famous ___-neck flasks were a critical part of his experiment to finally disprove spontaneous generation.
    Swan
  113. Hybrid DNA is composed of two strands from different species; the more hydrogen bonds holding them together, the ____ genetic relatedness there is between the two species.
    More
  114. The study of parasites is ____.
    Parasitology
  115. The study of how the body defends itself against invaders is ____.
    Immunology

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