Microbiology

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Author:
kaori
ID:
282828
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2014-09-12 23:03:34
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Microbial Metabolism
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Microbial Metabolism
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  1. Chemiosmosis occurs at the ___ ___ __ located on the cell membrane of prokaryotic cells, on the cristae of eukaryotic mitochondria, and on the thylakoids of eukaryotic chloroplasts.
    Electron Transport Chain
  2. ___ allosteric regulation involves a reversible enzyme activator.
    Positive
  3. ___ refers to all the chemical reactions in living organisms.
    Metabolism
  4. In aerobic respiration, the intermediate (or "prep") steps that follow glycolysis produce two __ groups (C2H2O) that are carried into the Krebs cycle (aka Citric Acid cycle) by Coenzyme A molecules.
    Acetyl
  5. ___ refers to removal of CO2  from a molecule; occurs during the intermediate ("prep") steps and during Krebs cycle of aerobic respiration.
    Decarboxylation
  6. ___ ___ is the enzyme located at the end of a proton (H+) channel; it harnesses the kinetic energy or protons flowing through to make ATP.
    ATP Synthase
  7. The ___ is the molecule an enzyme works upon.
    Subtrate
  8. ____ refers to removal of H2 from a molecule; occurs during glycolysis, the intermediate ("prep") steps and during Krebs cycle of aerobic respiration.
    Oxidation.
  9. Glucose is the ___ molecule for glycolysis.
    Precursor
  10. Two pyruvic acids are the ___ ___ of glycolysis.
    End Product
  11. The ___ gradient formed during chemiosmosis represents potential energy.
    Electrochemical
  12. ___ ___ fermentation occurs in out muscle cells when the oxygen demand can no longer be met.
    Lactic Acid
  13. The net number of ATP (per glucose) made during glycolysis is ___.
    2
  14. The production of ATP by chemiosmosis at the electron transport chain of photosynthesis is  called ____ phosphorylation.
    Photo
  15. The electrochemical gradient formed during chemiosmosis represents ___ energy.
    Potential
  16. The movement of proteins (H+) through a proton channel is an example of ___ diffusion.
    Facilitated
  17. ___ enzymes are secreted by a cell.
    Exoenzyme
  18. Negative allosteric regulation involves a reversible enzyme ____.
    Inhibitor
  19. ___ refers to the acetyl group combined with its Coenzyme A carrier.
    Acetyl CoA
  20. Acetaldehyde is an ____ in the alcohol fermentation pathway.
    Intermediate
  21. Chemiosmosis occurs at the electron transport chain located on the cell membrane of prokaryotic cells, on the ____ of eukaryotic mitochondria, and on the thylakoids of eukaryotic chloroplasts.
    Cristae
  22. When enzymes are exposed to external heat or pH, they are usually ____, and therefore inactive because of their changed 3-dimensional shape.
    Denatured.
  23. The ____ ___ is a metabolic pathway consisting of 9 steps controlled by 9 enzymes that is a part of aerobic respiration. It requires 2 acetyl groups and 6 H20 and it releases 4 C02, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2 and 2 ATP.
    Kreb's Cycle
  24. ___ enzymes remain and function inside a cell.
    Endoenzymes
  25. ATP consists of a nitrogen base called ____, a 5C sugar called ribose and three negatively charged phosphate groups.
    Adenine
  26. The "high energy bonds" of ATP are more easily broke because each of the phosphate groups has a ___ charge.
    Negative
  27. The total number of ATP (per glucose) made during glycolysis is ___.
    4
  28. ____ ___ is the enzyme that phosphorylates ADP using energy from sunlight or food molecules.
    ATP Synthase
  29. ATP synthase is located at the end of a ___ ___ so that the kinetic energy of protons flowing through can be harnessed to make ATP.
    Proton Channel
  30. ATP consists of a nitrogen base called adenine, a 5C sugar called ribose and three negatively charged _____ groups.
    Phosphate
  31. Acetyl CoA refers to the acetyl group combined with its ___ __ carrier.
    Coenzyme A
  32. 6 ____ molecules are required for aerobic respiration and 12 ___ molecules are by-products of aerobic respiration.
    Water
  33. The __ steps (also called the "prep steps") occur between glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle of aerobic respiration; decarboxylation and oxidation occur.
    Intermediate
  34. ____ literally means the "splitting of sugar"; this metabolic pathway occurs first and then leads into aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration or fermentation, depending on the type of cell and the situation.
    Glycolysis
  35. All cells use ATP molecules to store ____.
    Energy
  36. ___ inhibition occurs when an inhibitor blocks the active site of an enzyme, keeping the real substate from getting in.
    Competative
  37. Breaking down macromolecules (as in digestion) is the part of metabolism referred to as ____.
    Catabolism
  38. ADP → ATP _____ energy from good or sun.
    Requires
  39. Allosteric regulation of enzymes is a way to activate or inactivate an enzyme by temporarily changing its ____.
    Shape
  40. Metabolic ____ occurs when there are two or more possible precursors that lead to the same end products.
    Convergence
  41. ___ respiration requires oxygen and occurs in most bacteria, all protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
    Aerobic
  42. The intermediate steps (also called the "____ ___") occur between glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle of aerobic respiration.
    Prep Steps
  43. Chemiosmosis occurs at the electron transport chain located on the ___ ___ of prokaryotic cells, on the cristae of eukaryotic mitochondria, and on the thylakoids of eukaryotic chloroplasts.
    Cell Membrane
  44. Cofactors are substances necessary to activate some enzymes; examples include metal ions from ___ and coenzymes from vitamins.
    Minerals
  45. Sulfa drugs inhibit the enzyme that changes ____ into folic acid.
    PABA
  46. Two ____ ___ (C3H4O3) are the end products of glycolysis: They are also the precursors of aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation.
    Pyruvic Acids
  47. Pyruvic acid is the ____ ___ of glycolysis; Ethyl alcohol is the ___ __ of alcohol fermentation; Lactic acid is the ____ ____ of lactic acid fermentation.
    End Product
  48. ___ ___ occurs at the proton (H+) pumps of the electron transport chain to establish an unequal distribution of H+ across the membrane.
    Active Transport
  49. Sulfa drugs inhibit the enzyme that changes PABA into ____ acid.
    Folic
  50. The ___ ___ is the region of a substrate that matches the active site of its enzyme.
    Combining Site
  51. ____ regulation is a way to temporarily activate or inactivate an enzyme by changing its shape; it may be positive (involving an activator) or negative (involving and inhibitor).
    Allosteric
  52. Aerobic respiration is called aerobic because it ____ oxygen.
    Requires
  53. Coenzyme cofactors usually complete the active site of an enzyme and serve as electron "___," transferring them from one molecule to another.
    Carriers
  54. _____ regulation of enzymes is a way to activate of inactivate an enzyme by temporarily changing its shape.
    Allosteric
  55. The number of ATP made (per glucose) by molecular rearrangement during the Kreb's cycle is ___.
    2
  56. 6C02 and 12H20 are ___ -___ of aerobic respiration; 2C02 are ___-___ of alcohol fermentation.
    By-Products
  57. Metabolic convergence begins with an ___ precursor.
    Alternate
  58. Decarboxylation refers to the removal of ___ ___ from a molecule.
    Carbon Dioxide
  59. During Glycolysis, glucose undergoes ____ when 2H2 are removed.
    Oxidation
  60. An ___ is a biological catalyst that speeds up chemical reactions in cells by lowering the energy of activation that is necessary.
    Enzyme
  61. Anabolism occurs by means of a mechanism called ____ ___ (when molecules of water is removed from between two molecules, allowing them to bond together).
    Dehydration Synthesis
  62. ____ inhibition occurs when an inhibitor does not resemble the substrate and therefore does not block the enzyme's active site; heavy metal poisons such as lead, mercury and cyanide are all examples.
    Noncompetitive
  63. During catabolism, a ____ is broken down into many monosaccharides by means of hydrolysis (when a molecule of water is added between two molecules to help separate them).
    Polysaccharide
  64. ____ are substances that are necessary to activate some enzymes; examples include metal ions from dietary minerals and coenzymes from vitamins.
    Cofactors
  65. Anabolism occurs when 3 fatty acids and a glycerol are joined together to form a ____ by means of dehydration synthesis ( when a molecule of water is removed from between two molecules, allowing them to bond together).
    Triglyceride
  66. ____ occurs at the electron transport chain and results in large amounts of ATP being made.
    Chemiosmosis
  67. Catabolism occurs when a triglyceride is broken down into 3 ___ ___ and 1 glycerol by means of hydrolysis ( when a molecule of water is added between two molecules, allowing them to separate).
    Fatty Acids
  68. Anabolism occurs when many ____ are joined together to form a polysaccharide by means of dehydration (when a molecule of water is removed from between two molecules, allowing them to bond together).
    Monosaccharide
  69. ATP consists of an nitrogen base called adenine, a 5C sugar called ____ and three negatively charged phosphate groups.
    Ribose
  70. Following fermentation in out muscle cells, lactic acids are carried to the liver where they are rebuilt into glucose in a process called _____.
    Gluconeogenesis
  71. Glycolysis, "prep" steps and Krebs's cycle all occur in the ____ of prokaryotic cell.
    Cytoplasm
  72. Each NADH results in ___ ATP being made at the electron transport chain.
    3
  73. Metabolic divergence leads to an ___ end product.
    Alternate
  74. ATP → ADP ____ energy to do cellular work.
    Releases
  75. Catabolism occurs when ___ ____ (such as DNA or RNA) is broken down into nucleotides by means of hydrolysis (when a molecule of water is added between two molecules, allowing them to separate).
    Nucleic Acid
  76. Coenzyme cofactors usually form from ___ in the diet.
    Minerals
  77. In a eukaryotic cell, the "prep" steps and Kreb's cycle occur in the ___ of the mitochondria.
    Middle
  78. In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain of aerobic respiration is located on cristae, the inner membrane folds of organelles called _____.
    Mitochondria
  79. A ___ ___ is a series of steps to change or transform molecules, with each step controlled by a specific enzyme.
    Metabolic Pathway
  80. ___ is the part of metabolism that requires energy from ATP molecules.
    Anabolism
  81. Two ___ ___ (C2H5OH) molecules are the end product of alcohol fermentation.
    Ethyl Alcohols
  82. In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain of photosynthesis is located on thylakoids, the inner membrane folds of organelles called _____.
    Chloroplasts
  83. Adding a phosphate group to any molecule (including ADP to make ATP) is called ____.
    Phosphorylation
  84. NAD+ is a ___ "carrier" that becomes NADH when food is oxidized.
    Coenzyme
  85. During chemiosmosis, and electrochemical gradient is created by active transport at a ____ ____.
    Proton Pump
  86. In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chaing of aerobic respiration is located on ____, the inner membrane fold of organelles called mitochondria.
    Cristae
  87. The ____ is the molecule that enters a metabolic pathway.
    Precursor
  88. In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain of photosynthesis is located on ____ , the inner membrane folds of organelles called chloroplasts.
    Thylakoids
  89. An enzyme is an organic molecule called a ____, composed of specific sequence of amino acids.
    Protein
  90. During aerobic reparation, ____ is the final e-/H+ acceptor.
    Oxygen
  91. ___ ___ inhibition occurs when the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as a reversible inhibitor of the first enzyme of the pathway.
    Negative Feedback
  92. ____ (such as NAD+ and FAD) are organic cofactors (or coenzymes) that are required by some enzymes; they are typically derived from vitamins in the diet.
    Coenzyme
  93. The letters ATP stands for ____ _____.
    Adenosine Triphosphate
  94. ___ occurs at the electron transport chain located on the cell membrane of prokaryotic cells, on the cristae of eukaryotic mitochondria, and on the thylakoids of eukaryotic chloroplasts.
    Chemiosmosis
  95. The combining site of a substrate matches the ___ ___ of its enzyme.
    Active Site
  96. Anabolism occurs when ___ are joined together to form a nucleic acid (such as DNA or RNA) by means of dehydration synthesis (when a molecule of water is removed from between two molecules, allowing them to bond together).
    Nucliotides
  97. ___ refers to the addition of water molecule during the Kreb's cycle.
    Hydration
  98. ____ respiration only occurs in a few types of bacteria; does NOT require oxygen.
    Anaerobic
  99. Carbon dioxide is a ___-___ of alcohol fermentation that is used by the baking industry to make bread rise.
    By-Product
  100. Glycolysis was originally known as the ____-___ pathway.
    Embden-Meyerhoff
  101. Metabolic ____ leads to an alternate end product.
    Divergence
  102. ____ cells net 38 ATP from complete oxidation of a glucose molecule.
    Prokaryotic
  103. Catabolism occurs when proteins are broken down into ___ ___ by means of hydrolysis (when a molecule of water is added between two molecules, allowing them to separate).
    Amino Acid
  104. The production of ATP at the electron transport chain of aerobic respiration is called ____ phosphorylation because the energy comes from the oxidation of food.
    Oxidative
  105. Catabolic reactions occur by means of ____ (when a molecule of water is added between two molecules, allowing them to separate).
    Hydrolysis
  106. Glycolysis occurs in the ___ of all cells.
    Cytoplasm
  107. Enzyme names should end with -____.
    Ase
  108. ATP synthase is located at the end of a proton (H+) channel so that the ___ energy of protons flowing through can be harnessed to make ATP.
    Kinetic
  109. Positive allosteric regulation involves a reversible enzyme _____.
    Activator
  110. ____ drugs inhibit the enzyme that changes PABA into folic acid.
    Sulfa
  111. Both brewing and baking industries depend upon the metabolic pathway known as ____ fermentation.
    Alcohol
  112. ___ is the enzyme that breaks down ATP when a cell needs energy.
    ATPase
  113. Each FADH2 results in ____ (number) ATP being made at the electron transport chain.
    2

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