Ch. 2 Promoting and Preserving Your Psychological Health

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rloong
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282865
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Ch. 2 Promoting and Preserving Your Psychological Health
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2014-09-25 03:48:20
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Health Basics
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  1. 1. Psychological Health
    2. Most experts identify several basic elements shared by psychological healthy people:
    • 1. includes mental, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions
    • 2. 
    • They feel good about themselves 
    • They feel comfortable with other people
    • They control tension and anxiety
    • They meet the demands of life
    • They curb hate and guilt
    • They maintain a positive outlook
    • They value diversity
    • They appreciate and respect nature
  2. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • created by human theorist Abraham Maslow in 1960s
    • *Fig. 2.2 Pg. 29
  3. Mental Health
    • is used to describe the "thinking" or "rational" dimension of our health 
    • Perceives life in realistic ways
    • can adapt to change
    • can develop rational strategies to solve problems
    • can carry out personal and professional responsibilities
  4. 1. Emotional Health
    2. Emotions
    3. Typically, emotions are described as the interplay of four components:
    • 1. refers to the feeling or subjective, side of psychological health
    • 2. are intensified feelings or complex patterns of feelings that we experience on a regular basis (love, joy, hate, frustration, anxiety
    • 3.
    • Physiological arousal
    • feelings
    • Cognitive (thought) Processes
    • Behavioral Reactions
  5. Social Health
    • includes your interactions with others on an individual and group basis
    • your ability to use social resources and support in times of need
    • your ability to adapt to a variety of social situations
  6. 1. Social Bonds
    2. Social Support
    • 1. reflect the level of closeness and attachment that we develop with individuals and are the very foundation of human life 
    • 2. it refers to the networks of people and services with whom and which we interact and share social connections
    • these ties can provide tangible support (baby sitting) or intangible support  (encouraging you to share intimate thoughts)
  7. Spiritual Health
    refers to the sense of belonging to something greater than the purely physical or personal dimensions of existence
  8. dysfunctional families
    in which there is violence; distrust; anger; dietary deprivation; drug abuse, parental discord; or sexual, physical, or emotional abuse
  9. Factors that influence psychological health
    • Family
    • Social Support
    • Community
    • Self-Efficacy and Self Esteem
    • Personality
    • Life Span and Maturity
  10. 1. Self-efficacy
    2. Self-esteem
    • 1. belief in one's own ability to perform a task successfully
    • 2. refers to one's sense of self-respect or self-worth
  11. 1. Learned Helplessness
    2. Learned Optimism
    • 1. people who continually experience failure may develop a pattern in which they give up and fail to take any action to help themselves
    • 2. teaching oneself to think positively
  12. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
    the study of how the brain and behavior affect the body's immune system
  13. 1. Subjective well-being
    2. Three central components
    • 1. is that uplifting feeling of inner peace or an overall "feel-good" state, which includes happiness
    • 2.
    • satisfaction with present life
    • relative presence of positive emotions
    • relative absence of negative emotions
  14. Mental Illness
    are disorders that disrupt thinking, feeling, moods, and behaviors, and cause varying degrees of impaired functioning in daily living
  15. Chronic Mood Disorders
    are disorders that affect how you feel, such as persistent sadness or feelings of euphoria
  16. Dysthymic Disorder (dysthymia)
    • a less severe syndrome of chronic, mild depression 
    • harder to recognize than major depression
    • dysthymic individuals may appear to function, but they lack energy or fatigue easily; be short tempered, overly pessimistic, and ornery
  17. Bipolar Disorder (maniac depression)
    often have severe mood swings, ranging from extreme highs (mania) to extreme lows (depression)
  18. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
    strikes during the winter months and is associated with reduced exposure to sunlight
  19. 1. Anxiety Disorders
    2. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
    • 1. they are characterized by persistent feelings of threat or worry
    • 2. a constant sense of worry that may cause restlessness, difficulty in concentrating, tension, and other symptoms
  20. Panic Disorders
    are characterized by the occurrence of panic attacks, a form of acute anxiety reaction that brings on an intense physical reaction
  21. 1. Phobic Disorders
    2. Social Phobia (social anxiety disorder)
    • 1. Phobias involve a persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation, often out of proportion to the circumstances 
    • result in a compelling desire to avoid the source of the fear
    • 2. characterized by the persistent fear and avoidance of social situations
    • the person dreads these situations for fear of being humiliated, embarrassed, or even looked at
  22. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    people who feel compelled to perform rituals over and over again; who are fearful of dirt or contamination; who have an unnatural concern about order, symmetry, and exactness or who have persistent intrusive thoughts that they can't shake
  23. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event, such as natural disaster, serious accident, or combat may develop PTSD
  24. What causes anxiety disorders?
    • Biology
    • Environment
    • Social and cultural roles
  25. Strategies to Enhance Psychological Health
    • Find a support group
    • Complete required tasks
    • Form realistic expectations
    • Make time for you
    • Maintain physical health
    • Examine problems and seek help when necessary
    • Get adequate sleep
  26. Personality Disorder
    is an "enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectation of the individual's culture and is pervasive and inflexible"
  27. Paranoid Disorder
    which involves pervasive, unfounded suspicion and mistrust of other people, irrational jealousy, and secretiveness
  28. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    • involve an exaggerated sense of self-importance and self-absorption 
    • they are fascinated with themselves and are preoccupied with fantasies of how wonderful they are
  29. Borderline Personality Disorder
    • is characterized by impulsiveness and risky behaviors such as gambling sprees, unsafe sex, use of illicit drugs, and daredevil driving
    • see things only in black and white
    • self-mutilate and harm themselves
  30. Schizophrenia
    characterized by alterations of senses; the inability to sort out incoming stimuli and make appropriate responses; an altered sense of self; and radical changes in emotions, movements, and behaviors
  31. Prevent Suicide
    • Monitor the warning signals
    • Take threats seriously
    • Let the person know how much you care
    • Listen
    • Ask Directly
    • Do not belittle the person's feelings
    • Help the person think about alternatives to suicide 
    • Tell your friend's spouse, partner, parents, siblings, or counselor
  32. Cognitive therapy
    • focuses on the impact of thoughts and ideas on our feelings and behavior
    • it helps a person to look at life rationally and correct habitually pessimistic or faulty thinking patterns
  33. Behavioral therapy
    • focuses on what we do
    • behavioral therapy uses the concepts of stimulus, response, and reinforcement to alter behavior patterns
  34. Spirituality
    An individual's sense of peace, purpose, and connection to others, and beliefs about the meaning of life
  35. religion
    a system of beliefs, practices, and rituals, and symbols designed to facilitate closeness to the sacred or transcendent
  36. Values
    • our principles-not only the things we say we care about, but also the things that cause us to behave the way we do
    • it is what we stand for
  37. Spiritual Intelligence (SI)
    • physicist and philosopher Danah Zohar defined it as "an ability to access higher meanings, values, abiding purposes and unconscious aspects of the self" 
    • a characteristic that helps each of us find a moral and ethical path to guide us through life
  38. Contemplation
    usually refers to a practice of concentrating the mind on a spiritual or ethical question or subject, a view of the natural world, or an icon or other image representative of divinity
  39. Mindfulness
    • a practice of focused, nonjudgmental observation
    • is the ability to be fully present in the moment
  40. Meditation
    is a practice of emptying the mind, of cultivating stillness
  41. Prayer
    an individual focuses the mind in communication with a transcendent Presence
  42. Altruism
    the giving of oneself out of genuine concern for others
  43. Environmental Stewardship
    responsibility for environmental quality shared by all those whose action affect the enviroment

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