A&P Lecture 1 part 2
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transports one substance, one way
transports two substances one way
transports one substance one way and another substance the other way
How does the cell take up glucose and get rid of sodium?
a receptor open to the outside binds glucose from the blood, the biding causes the receptorto change shape, closing it to the outside and opening it to the inside, glucose is then released into the cell and the receptor resumes tits original shape. Since glucose is coming down its concentration gradient, this doesn't require any energy and its called facilitated diffusion. Water moves hypo to hyper.
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
processing of new proteins
function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
makes lipids, cholesterol, detoxifies alcohol
function of the golgi complex?
- adds lipid side groups to proteins
- directs processed proteins to their appropriate destination
What is the difference between exocytosis and endocytosis?
- release of substances from a cell
- uptake of substances into a cell
What is meant by complimentary bases?
the two bases will only bond with each other
What is the anti-parallel arrangement?
the two stands of DNA run in opposite directions
What happens in mitosis?
- the nuclear membrane breaks down
- the sister chromatids are free in the cytoplasm
- microtubules from the centrosomes (which have split and moved to opposite poles of the cell) attach to the sister chromatids and align them in the center of the cell
- the sisters split and each one is pulled to an opposite pole by its microtubule
- once at the poles, new nuclear membrane forms around them
How much of the chromosomes are functioning genes?
What two enzymes are involved in DNA replication?
- DNA helicase
- DNA ploymerase
a molecule of DNA
a chromosome wrapped around histones
the chromosome and its identical copy joined together at the centromere- only present after DNA replication
the making of a messenger RNA from the information of a gene
the assembly of a protein based on the information encoded on the messenger RNA
- RNA ploymerase opens up a gene on a chromosome
- adds complimentary RNA bases to the exposed bases on the gene
- At the end of the gene, the RNA strand detaches
- Has parts of itself cut out and other parts spliced together and becomes a messenger RNA
a part of the pre-messenger RNA that will not be used to make the protein
three consecutive bases on a messenger RNA that code for a specific amino acid
three bases on a transfer RNA that are complementary to a codon
Describe the assembly of the ribosome.
- Messenger RNA attaches to the small sub-unit of the ribosome
- a transfer RNA and the first amino acid attach to the mRNA
- the large sub-unit of the ribosome attaches
Describe the three types of mutation?
- Point mutation- substitution of the one base for another
- frame shift- insertion or deletion of a base
- transposon- a break in the chromosome creating a loose piece
What is transfer RNA?
an RNA with binding sites for specific mRNA codons and for a specific amino acid
What is a mutation?
permanent alternation of base alignment of DNA/gene
the allege that is expressed in the heterozygous state
two different alleles are fully expressed
a condition in which the expressed trait appears to be somewhere between the dominant and recessive alleles (has various causes)
several genes controlling one trait
one gene controlling several traits
chromosome, one paternal, one maternal, that contain the same genes
homologous genes, may be identical or may express variations in their trait
alleles are identical
alleles are different
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