Cardiovascular 2

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Hbottorff
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282968
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Cardiovascular 2
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2014-09-14 15:56:49
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questions from book
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  1. A heartbeat of less than 60 beats per minute is called
    bradycardia
  2. The T wave of an electrocardiogram represents which event
    the re-polarization of the ventricles
  3. The central cardiac control region is in the _____ of the brain
    medulla oblongata
  4. The electrical initiation of a heartbeat begins in the _____ chamber wall
    right atrium
  5. The last in the cardiac conduction sequence is the _____.
    Purkinje fibers
  6. The first heart sound is caused by closure of the _____ valves
    atrioventricular
  7. Cardiac output can be determined by the following formula:
    CO = HR x SV
  8. Which structure contains the lowest amount of oxygen?
    vena cava
  9. The aortic semilunar valve prevents blood from returning to the _____.
    left ventricular
  10. The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents a back-flow of blood into the _____.
    right ventricle
  11. The _____ valve lies between the right atrium and right ventricle.
    tricuspid
  12. How many openings are there in the right atrium?
    3
  13. Which membrane is closest to the heart muscle?
    visceral pericardium (epicardium)
  14. The inability of the left ventricle to pump blood adequately to the body's cells is indicative of ________________.
    congestive heart failure
  15. A unique venous system, called the ________________, carries blood
    directly from the intestines to the liver for processing rather than
    directly into the inferior vena cava.
    hepatic portal system
  16. Blood is drained from the face, scalp, and superficial regions of the neck by the _______________.
    external jugular veins
  17. A deep wound to the upper thigh might damage the _____________ artery.
    femoral
  18. Which artery supplies blood to the ilium and muscles of the lower back?
    iliolumbar artery
  19. What does the electrocardiogram (ECG) QRS wave indicate is happening in the heart?
    The ventricles are depolarizing while the atria repolarize.
  20. How does the impulse to contract slow down slightly before it is transferred into the ventricles?
    Junctional fibers leading into the AV node have very small diameters.
  21. When do the A-V valves close during the cardiac cycle?
    when ventricular pressure exceeds that of the atria
  22. Someone suffering a heart attack in his anterior lower right ventricle probably had a blockage in which coronary artery?
    anterior interventricular artery
  23. Freshly oxygenated blood enters the heart through the ______________, and is pumped out the _____________.
    left atrium; aorta
  24. The _____________ has the thickest wall because it pumps blood to the ________________.
    left ventricle; systemic circuit
  25. The bicuspid valve __________________. (location)
    is located on the left side of the heart
  26. The layer of the heart that forms a smooth, protective lining of the heart chambers and valves is the _______________.
    endocardium
  27. Which layer of the heart or pericardium serves the dual purpose of lining the
    pericardium and forming the outermost wall of the heart?
    visceral pericardium (epicardium)
  28. formula for Blood Pressure
    BP = CO x TPR ( total peripheral resistance)
  29. formula for resistance
    8nl/ℵr4
  30. formula for Stroke volume
    SV = EDV-ESV
  31. Mean arterial BP (MAP) formula
    MAP = DP + 1/3 Pulse Pressure
  32. which circuit of the heart sends oxygen poor blood to the lungs?
    pulmonary circuit
  33. which circuit sends oxygen rich blood throughout the body
    systemic circuit
  34. which system sends blood to the heart
    coronary system
  35. during the heart sounds what makes the lubb noise
    the av valve closes
  36. during heart sounds what causes the dubb noise
    pulmonary and aortic valves close
  37. a decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel
    vasoconstriction
  38. Where is the heart specifically located
    mediastinum
  39. The average blood pressure in an artery is the _____
    mean atrial pressure MAP
  40. The atria will empty during ______.
    atrial systole
  41. Which fiber system is the first to depolarize in a cardiac cycle?
    sinoatrial node
  42. Which chamber of the heart contains the pacemaker?
    right atria
  43. The amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle each minute is calculated from which formula?
    heart rate x stroke volume
  44. The three factors that contribute to arterial blood pressure are cardiac output, blood volume, and _____.
    resistance
  45. The central venous pressure is the pressure in the _____.
    right atrium
  46. Which are the first vessels to branch off the aorta?
    coronary arteries
  47. The three arteries that arise from the aortic arch are the left subclavian, left common carotid, and _____.
    brachiocephalic
  48. Freshly oxygenated blood enters the heart through the ______________, and is pumped out the _____________.
    left atrium; aorta
  49. Someone suffering a heart attack in his anterior lower right ventricle probably had a blockage in which coronary artery?
    anterior interventricular artery
  50. When do the AV valves close during the cardiac cycle?
    when ventricular pressure exceeds that of the atria
  51. The atrioventricular sulcus separates the _____
    atria and ventricle areas
  52. Which of the following contains blood with relatively high oxygen content?
    left ventricle
  53. Which of the following contains blood with relatively low oxygen content?
    pulmonary artery
  54. When does blood flow into the coronary arteries?
    during ventricular relaxation
  55. About _____% of the atrial blood flows into the ventricles before the atria contract.
    70
  56. The _____ allows the atria to communicate with the ventricles.
    A-V bundle
  57. Which part of the heart is the last to become excited during a cardiac cycle?
    superior ventricular region
  58. Which area allows the atria to completely empty as the ventricles fill with blood?
    S-A node
  59. The baroreceptors located in the _____ respond to stretching by slowing the rate of the heart
    aortic arch
  60. The time taken for an impulse to travel from the S-A to the A-V node is evidenced in the _____.
    P-Q interval
  61. Which factors assists venous return to the heart?
    • total blood volume
    • skeletal muscle pump
    • respiratory pump
    • visceral blood reservoir
  62. The highest pressure exerted by the heart is called the _____.
    systolic pressure
  63. The brachial artery divides into the radial and _____.
    ulnar
  64. In an ECG, where does the depolarization of the atria occur?
    P wave
  65. Which layer of the following serves the dual purpose of forming the
    inner layer of the pericardium and forming the outermost wall of the
    heart?
    visceral pericardium
  66. The _____ valve lies between the right atrium and right ventricle.
    tricuspid
  67. The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents a backflow of blood into the _____.
    right ventricle
  68. The aortic semilunar valve prevents blood from returning to the _____.
    left ventricle
  69. Which structure contains the lowest amount of oxygen?
    vena cava
  70. Cardiac output can be determined by which of the following formulas?
    HR x SV
  71. Pressure within the atria is greatest when the ventricles are relaxing and the atria are contracting. true or false
    true
  72. As the ventricles contract, the pressure in them exceeds the pressure in the atria. t or f
    true
  73. A functional syncytium occurs when one cardiac muscle cell causes the ones around to inhibit their beat. t or f
    false; A functional syncytium occurs when one heart cell causes the cells around it to contract synchronously with it.
  74. An injection of acetylcholine into the heart could decrease the rate of the heart. t or f
    true
  75. the sympathetic nervous system usually has the effect of increasing heart rate. t or f
    true
  76. An increase in blood calcium or hypercalcemia can cause the heart to increase its pressure and have a prolonged QRS interval. t or f
    • true; Since Ca2+ is required for contraction, changes in blood
    • levels may adversely affect the heart; the prolonged length of the QRS
    • interval is related to a possible spasm of the cardiac musculature.
  77. Normally the hydrostatic pressure of the blood exceeds its osmotic
    pressure which causes a loss of fluids into the tissue spaces. t or f
    • true; Fluids are constantly lost from the capillary circulation but this
    • excess fluid is brought back to the circulation by the lymphatic
    • vessels.
  78. Starling's law of the heart states
    • As the fibers stretch from the amount of blood present, the cardiac
    • muscle in the walls will exert a greater force of contraction.
  79. When an atrium is in systole the ventricle is in diastole. t or f
    true; In a normally functioning heart, the atria and ventricles are in opposite phases.
  80. what does CICR stand for and mean?
    • calcium induce and calcium release
    • it means calcium comes in through gates to induce heart contraction due to the release of calcium
  81. this increases the permeability of the capillaries
    histamine
  82. due to hydrostatic pressure water leaves the capillaries what is left over in the capillaries?
    colloid plasma protiens
  83. what is it called when water re-enters the capillaries?
    colloid osmotic pressure
  84. what three things effect stroke volume
    • preload
    • afterload
    • ventricular contraction
  85. what is the term for the amount of blood the heart pumps every beat
    stroke volume
  86. what effects preload
    venous return
  87. what effects contractility
    • autonomic innervation
    • hormones
  88. what hormones effect heart rate (3 main ones
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • musicrinic/ nicotinic (thyroid)

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