exam 1 a&p

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sh3ilamarie
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282982
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exam 1 a&p
Updated:
2014-09-14 14:44:07
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anatomy
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Description:
a&p exam 1, ch. 5,6, and 7
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  1. name the layers of the skin and what does it consist of.
    • 1. epidermis
    • stratum corenum
    • stratum Lucidum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum basale

    • 2. dermis
    • papillary layer- contains blood vessel
    • reticular- deeper and thicker layer
  2. papillary layer of the dermis is composed of what tissue?
    areolar connective tissue
  3. reticular layer of the dermis is comprised mainly by what tissue?
    irregular connective tissue
  4. what are the 3 colors of the skin?
    • 1. hemoglobin- blood pigment (red)
    • 2. melanin- pigment produces melanocytes
    • 3. carotene - yellow-orange pigment from food
  5. what is a muscle in the integumentary system?
    arrector pili
  6. what is a arrector pili?
    muscles attach to the hair shaft. it responses to emotions and cold temp (causing "goose bumps")
  7. name three major zones that make up a hair.
    • 1. hair bulb
    • 2. hair root
    • 3. hair shaft
  8. what are the exocrine glands of the skin?
    • 1. sweat (sudoriferous) gland
    • 2. sebaceous glands - produces oil
  9. name the cartilage cells.
    • 1. chondroblasts - produces matrix (MATURE CELLS)
    • 2. chrondrocytes - surrounded by matrix (IMMATURE CELLS)
  10. name types of cartilage growth patterns.
    • 1. interstitial grownth - from w/in cartilage (MITOTSIS OF CHONDROCYTE IN LACUNAE)
    • 2. appositional growth - along the cartilage periphery (MITOSIS OF STEM CELL IN PERICHONDRIUM; ADD CHONDROBLAST TO PERIPHERY)
  11. what are the functions of bone?
    • support and protection
    • movement
    • hemopoiesis - blood production
    • storage of mineral and energy reserves
  12. what are the classifications of bones?
    • 1. long bones - greater than width
    • 2. short bones - nearly equal length and width
    • 3. flat bones - thin surfaces
    • 4. irregular bone - ¬†complex shapes
  13. what bones are considered as long bones?
    • fingers & toes
    • tibia & fibula
  14. what bones are short bones?
    • carpals (wrist bone)
    • tarsals¬†
    • sesamoid - tiny, seed-shape bones (patella)
  15. what bones are flat bones?
    • roof of the skull
    • scapula¬†
    • sternum
    • ribs
  16. what bones are irregular bones?
    • vertabrea
    • ossa coxae (hip bones)
    • skull dones (ethmoid & sphenoid)
  17. name the general structures of long bones?
    • diaphysis
    • epiphysis
    • metaphysis
  18. diaphysis
    elongated, cylindrical shaft
  19. epiphysis
    • knobby at each end of bone
    • strengthens joints
    • attachment site for tendons & ligaments
  20. mataphysis
    • region between diaphysis and epiphysis
    • contains epiphyseal (growth) plate
  21. articular cartilage
    • thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis
    • reduces friction and absorbs shock in moveable joints
  22. medullary cavity
    • hallow, cylindrical space in diaphysis
    • in adults, it contains yellow bone marrow
  23. endosteum
    • covers most internal surfaces of bones
    • contains osteoprognitors cell,osteoblast, and osteoclasts
  24. periosteum
    • dense irregular ct
    • covers external surfaces of bone (except articular cartilage)
    • anchored by perforating fibers
    • acts as blood vessels and nerves
    • contain osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblast
  25. osteoprogenitor cells
    mesenchymal stem cells found in endosteum and periosteum; can produce more cells or osteoblasts
  26. osteoblasts
    form bone matrix
  27. osteocytes
    resides in lacunae; maintain matrix and detect mechanical stress on a bone
  28. osteoclasts
    large, multinuclear cells that dissolves bone matrix, releasing calcium
  29. axial skeleton consist of...
    skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
  30. appendictular skeleton consist of...
    shoulder and hip bones and those of the upper and lower extremities.
  31. names the sutures of a skull
    • coronal suture
    • lambdoid suture
    • sagittal suture
    • squamous suture
  32. coronal suture
    junction between frontal and parietal bones
  33. lambdoid suture
    junction between occipital and parietal bones
  34. sagittal suture
    junction between left and right parietal bones
  35. squamous suture
    junction between temporal and parietal bones
  36. where in the skull is the pituitary gland located?
    sella turcia
  37. part of frontal and sphenoid of of nasal
    cribriform plate
  38. name the paranasal sinuses.
    • frontal sinus
    • ethmoidal sinus
    • sphenoidal sinus
    • maxillary sinus

    *mastoid process
  39. fontanelles are made out of what type of connecting tissue?
    dense regular ct
  40. name the major fontanelles.
    • mastoid fontanelle
    • sphenoidal fontanelle
    • posterior fontanelle
    • anterior fontanelle

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