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name the layers of the skin and what does it consist of.
- 1. epidermis
- stratum corenum
- stratum Lucidum
- stratum granulosum
- stratum spinosum
- stratum basale
- 2. dermis
- papillary layer- contains blood vessel
- reticular- deeper and thicker layer
papillary layer of the dermis is composed of what tissue?
areolar connective tissue
reticular layer of the dermis is comprised mainly by what tissue?
irregular connective tissue
what are the 3 colors of the skin?
- 1. hemoglobin- blood pigment (red)
- 2. melanin- pigment produces melanocytes
- 3. carotene - yellow-orange pigment from food
what is a muscle in the integumentary system?
what is a arrector pili?
muscles attach to the hair shaft. it responses to emotions and cold temp (causing "goose bumps")
name three major zones that make up a hair.
- 1. hair bulb
- 2. hair root
- 3. hair shaft
what are the exocrine glands of the skin?
- 1. sweat (sudoriferous) gland
- 2. sebaceous glands - produces oil
name the cartilage cells.
- 1. chondroblasts - produces matrix (MATURE CELLS)
- 2. chrondrocytes - surrounded by matrix (IMMATURE CELLS)
name types of cartilage growth patterns.
- 1. interstitial grownth - from w/in cartilage (MITOTSIS OF CHONDROCYTE IN LACUNAE)
- 2. appositional growth - along the cartilage periphery (MITOSIS OF STEM CELL IN PERICHONDRIUM; ADD CHONDROBLAST TO PERIPHERY)
what are the functions of bone?
- support and protection
- hemopoiesis - blood production
- storage of mineral and energy reserves
what are the classifications of bones?
- 1. long bones - greater than width
- 2. short bones - nearly equal length and width
- 3. flat bones - thin surfaces
- 4. irregular bone - complex shapes
what bones are considered as long bones?
- fingers & toes
- tibia & fibula
what bones are short bones?
- carpals (wrist bone)
- sesamoid - tiny, seed-shape bones (patella)
what bones are flat bones?
- roof of the skull
what bones are irregular bones?
- ossa coxae (hip bones)
- skull dones (ethmoid & sphenoid)
name the general structures of long bones?
elongated, cylindrical shaft
- knobby at each end of bone
- strengthens joints
- attachment site for tendons & ligaments
- region between diaphysis and epiphysis
- contains epiphyseal (growth) plate
- thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis
- reduces friction and absorbs shock in moveable joints
- hallow, cylindrical space in diaphysis
- in adults, it contains yellow bone marrow
- covers most internal surfaces of bones
- contains osteoprognitors cell,osteoblast, and osteoclasts
- dense irregular ct
- covers external surfaces of bone (except articular cartilage)
- anchored by perforating fibers
- acts as blood vessels and nerves
- contain osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblast
mesenchymal stem cells found in endosteum and periosteum; can produce more cells or osteoblasts
form bone matrix
resides in lacunae; maintain matrix and detect mechanical stress on a bone
large, multinuclear cells that dissolves bone matrix, releasing calcium
axial skeleton consist of...
skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
appendictular skeleton consist of...
shoulder and hip bones and those of the upper and lower extremities.
names the sutures of a skull
- coronal suture
- lambdoid suture
- sagittal suture
- squamous suture
junction between frontal and parietal bones
junction between occipital and parietal bones
junction between left and right parietal bones
junction between temporal and parietal bones
where in the skull is the pituitary gland located?
part of frontal and sphenoid of of nasal
name the paranasal sinuses.
- frontal sinus
- ethmoidal sinus
- sphenoidal sinus
- maxillary sinus
fontanelles are made out of what type of connecting tissue?
dense regular ct
name the major fontanelles.
- mastoid fontanelle
- sphenoidal fontanelle
- posterior fontanelle
- anterior fontanelle