MA 46 Study

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MsTisha
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MA 46 Study
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2010-07-28 19:18:29
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MA 46 Study
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  1. Define Microbiology
    The study of microorganisms.
  2. How do microorganisms cause disease?
    They may use up nutrients or other materials needed by the cells and tissues they invade. They can damage body cells by reproducing themselves within the cells. Some microorganisms produce toxins or poisons that damage cells and tissues.
  3. What are the classifications of microorganisms, and define each.
    Subcellular

    Prokaryotic Cells

    Eukaryotic cells
  4. consists of hererditary material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by protein coat.-viruses.
    Subcellular
  5. have a simple cell structure with no nucleus and no organelles in the cytoplasm –Bacteria.
    Prokaryotic Cells
  6. have a complex cell structure containing a nucleus and specialized organelles in the cytoplasm – Protozoans, fungi, parasites.
    Eukaryotic cells
  7. Name the different types of microorganisms
    Viruses

    Bacteria
  8. are the smallest known infectious agents. Cause many common illnesses such as colds and chickenpox.
    Viruses
  9. singled celled prokaryotic organisms that reproduce quickly and are one of the major causes disease. Under the right conditions – the right temp., the right nutrients , and moisture – bacterial cells can double in number in 15 to 30 minutes . Ingestion, vectors, contact..
    Bacteria
  10. A culture and sensitivity test is preformed to obtain a specimen and then test the isolated bacterium sensitivity to certain antibiotics. Helps the Dr decide which antibiotic might be most effective.
    antimicrobial sensitivity test
  11. Micro-organisms that are found on the skin and within the human body, not causing disease. Example would be micro organisms in the intestines produce vitamins and help digest food.
    normal flora
  12. What are some of the smallest infectious agents that cannot be seen with a regular microscope?
    Viruses
  13. How are bacteria classified?
    Their shape, ability to retain certain dyes, ability to grow with or without air, biochemical reactions.
  14. Sperical, round, ovoid....
    Cocccus/Cocci
  15. Rod shaped
    Bacillus/Bacilli
  16. spiral shaped
    Spirillum/Spirilla
  17. comma shaped
    Vibrio/Vibrios
  18. What do wet mounts do? What is the purpose of using a wet mount?
    Wet mount preparations place a specimen in a liquid that allows the microorganism to remain alive and mobile while they are being identified. In some cases direct examination allows the doctor to make a presumptive diagnosis. It permits quick identification of microorganisms.
  19. what is a stained specimen and what is a gram’s stain used for?
    Gram’s stain is a method of staining that differentiates bacteria according to their chemical composition of their cell walls. A stain is a solution of a dye or group of dyes that impart a color to microorganisms.
  20. Those that grow best in the absence of oxygen.
    anaerobes
  21. A sample of the specimen is placed in or on a substance that allows microorganisms to grow.
    A Culture
  22. Organisms that can grow in either environment...
    facultative
  23. What can the genus mycobacterium cause?
    Disease
  24. Mold is a type of what
    Fungi (Multi-celled Fungi)
  25. an organism that lives on or in another organism and relies on it for nourishment or some other advantage to the detriment of the host organism.
    A parasite
  26. An infection caused by a parasite is called an
    infestation
  27. Skin lesions that are very itchy and caused by a burrowing mite. Scabies is most commonly found between the fingers and on the genitalia.
    Scabies
  28. _____________characteristic are that they are eukaryotic, which means they have a complex cell structure containing a nucleus and specialized organelles in the cytoplasm.
    Fungi
  29. Mold is a type of what
    Fungus
  30. __________ inflammation of the heart tissue that causes strep throat.
    School age children are more likely to get it
    rheumatic fever
  31. This type of stool sample is examined for the presence of certain forms of protozoans or parasites, including their eggs (ova).
    O & P specimen (Ova & Parasites Specimen)
  32. How do Dr’s diagnose TB?
    With a Mantoux tuberculin skin test. You administer tuberculin intradermally with a needle and syringe. If results are positive the skin area turns red and becomes raised and hard.
  33. A distinct group of microorganisms, visible with the naked eye, on the surface of a culture medium.
    a colony
  34. A gelatin-like substance derived from seaweed that gives a culture medium its semisolid consistency.
    Agar

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