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What reasons are there for an increasing population?
- *industrial revolution
- *agricultural volition
- *medical advances
- *hygiene advances
- *improved transport (therefor trade)
- *education improvements
- *social provisions (such as benefits)
- *political factors
What are vital rates?
A number of different factors which affect population growth
What are crude rates?
They are measurements of vital statistics in a general population (overall change in births and deaths per 1000)
What are refined rates?
They are how changes in vital statistics in a specific demographic are measured (such as age, sex, race etc)
Example is the adult literacy rate
What is death rate?
The number of deaths per 1000 people in a year
What is birth rate?
The number of live births per 1000 per year
What is infant mortality rate?
The number of deaths of infants under the age of one per 1000 live births a year
What is natural increase?
- When there are more people in a population being born than are dying.
- Measured by birth rate minus death rate
What is fertility rate?
The number of live births in an area/country per 1000 women of child bearing age, in a year
What is the total fertility rate?
The average number of children a woman is expected to bear in her lifetime
What is population density?
Number of people who live in a given area, usually km2
Which continent has the highest population?
What is natural change?
The difference between birth rate and death rate. It tells you by hoe many the population will be growing per 1000 per year
What is natural change?
The difference between birth rate and death rate. It tells you how many the population will be growing per 1000 per year.
What is population change the outcome of?
Natural change and migration change
How many people have died as a result of AIDS?
More than 20 million
What are pessimistic views on population growth called?
Why did Malthus believe population growth was a bad thing?
- Strained services, infrastructure, sewage systems and transport networks
- Malthus believed population growth lead to poverty and famine
What are anti-natalist policies?
Schemes installed to drive population rates down
What are pro-natalist policies?
Schemes installed to drive population rates up
Why did Warren Thompson invent the DMT?
To show how population and economic development are all linked and that changes in one will bring around changes in the other
What factors affect birth rate? (list 6)
- Emancipation of women
- Economic climate
- Pro-natalist/Anti-natalist policies
- Population of a country
- Fertility rate
- Average marriage age
What factors affect death rate? (list 6)
- Sanitation levels
- Access to healthcare
- Natural disasters
- Access to clean drinking water
- Standard of living e.g. housing
- Age of population
What factors affect fertility
- Use of birth control (voluntary or forced)
- Pro/Anti natalist policies
Define: Crude birth rate
The total number of births in a single year per 1000 of the population. This doesn’t include the age and sex structure of a population.
A change in economic organisation
Primary force for change, includes secularisation, mass education and increased environmental control
Why are fertility levels falling?
- Influenced by the ideas transmitted via the internet, television or radio
- Influenced by those around them
- Religion holds specific ideas about family life
What percentage of the total fertility rate over 7.0 does Islam makes up?
What was Ester Boserup's pro-population theory?
- Population growth was a pre-requisite for economic growth
- People are intelligent and as demand for food/resources grows we will find new ways to supply it
- New/better technology is invented whenever needed. If old resources run out, new ones will be invented
What are the strengths of the DMT? (list 4)
- Allows planning for potential growth
- Easy to understand
- Shows transitions between stages
- Can be used to easily compare rates of growth between countries
- Can estimate population structure
What are the limitations of the DMT? (list 4)
- Doesn't take into account natural disasters, war, famine
- Not all countries follow the model forwardly, some regress back stages
- Doesn't take migration into account
- Doesn't predict when transition between stages will occur
What does the dependency ratio do?
Shows the relationship between the economically active and the dependant population which can show its level of development
What happens to the reproduction rate of a country as it becomes richer and more urbanised?
Reproduction levels dwindle
Why do migrants struggle to assimilate with the local population?
Different culture, religion, form of dress which both sides can't/won't come to terms with
What incentives are put into place to encourage the birth rate to go up?
- Extended maternity leave
- paternity leave
- child benefit
- earlier retirement age
- free education
- free childcare
what are the limitations to Malthus' growth model?
- too simplistic to be applied on a large scale
- technology has revolutionised agriculture so it doesn't increase arithmetically
- not an even spread of resources over the world
- presumes food supply is constant
What are the limitations to Boserup's growth model?
- Suggests there is a closed community when there may not be
- Difficult to prove/test - makes it unreliable to use
- Overpopulation will increase land degradation
What is the Club of Rome?
- Group of scientists, economists, industrialists that concluded that if population continues to grow as it is, and levels of food production remain the same then we will reach a population limit within 100 years.
- The result of this population limit will be a dramatic drop in population
What are the economic costs of migration on the origin country? (2)
- Loss of young labour force
- Loss of skilled professionals
What are the economic costs of migration on the host country? (4)
- Need to educate migrant families
- Over-dependence of migrant labour in industry
- Money is not spent in country but is sent back to origin country
- Resources strained
What are the economic benefits of migration on the origin country? (4)
- Reduced underemployment
- Returning migrants bring new skills
- Money is sent back to country from host country
- Less pressure on resources
What are the economic benefit of migration on the host country? (3)
- Less desirable jobs are filled
- Skilled labour at reduced cost
- Money spent in country supports economy
What are the social costs of migration on the origin country? (3)
- Negative effect on population structure, can increase dependency ratio
- Disproportionate male to female ratio
- Returning retired migrants impose social cost
What are the social costs of migration on the host country? (5)
- Dominance of males is reinforced
- Less chance for women in country to get jobs
- Culture lost
- Communities may become segregated and discriminated
- Schools taken up by migrant children
What are the social benefits of migration on the origin country? (2)
- Population density reduced
- Greater acceptance of culture
What are the social benefits of migration on the host country? (3)
- Creation of cultural society
- Increased understanding of other cultures
- Influx of different industries and businesses
What are the negative consequences of expanding rural areas? (5)
- Local people and newcomers views conflict
- Rural identity lost
- Increased pollution
- Increased traffic
- Increased risk of crime
What are the positive consequences of expanding rural areas? (3)
- New businesses invest in area
- Better transport links (trains, buses)
- Increased infrastructure such as street lighting