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What are the five branches of philosophy?
Metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics and epistemology
What is speculative thinking?
The curiosity that humans have about the world and striving to understand in natural (rather than supernatural) terms how things really are
What is practical thinking?
Emphasising the desire to guide, conducted by comprehending the nature of life
What is critical thinking?
A careful examination of her foundations upon which hinting of any sort must rely
What did Thales of Miletus conclude was the underlying principle that all things have?
Water (this was him trying to move away from mythical explanations to more rational explanations)
How did Thales of Miletus come to his conclusion?
- *life is 'liquidy' and requires water
- *water is abundant and everywhere (the sea, rain etc)
- *water can be a solid liquid or gas (not many things can be all three, maybe wax and rock)
- *land can emerge from the water (eg volcanoes)
To Thales, what did water hold the potential to do?
To nourish and generate the entire cosmos. He believed water had power to do things
When and why was Thales' theories proven wrong?
- His water theory was proved wrong in 1769 following experiments by Antoine Lavoisier
- Spontaneous generation was not disproved until the nineteenth century as a result of Louis Pasteur
How do Christians believe that God created the world?
- In the manner of 'Creatio Ex Nihilo'
- (creation out of nothing)
What is the School of Athens?
- Famous painting by Italian Renaissance artist Raphael
- Painted in 1510-1511 and decorates a room in the Apostolic palace in the Vatican
- Depicts different branches of knowledge (philosophy, poetry, theology, law)
- Nearly all famous philosophers of the time are depicted (such as Plato and Aristotle)
What are the four distinct branches of knowledge depicted by the School of Athens?
Who was Socrates?
- Was a soldier and a blacksmith before inheriting money after his father died. This money allowed him to support himself well enough to take on philosophy full time.
- He was forceful and upfront with his ideas and was sentenced to death for corrupting the youth and interfering with the religion of the city in 399BC
What is the socratic method?
Method still used today that involves discussing and analysing ideas. It involves accepting the idea that we are ignorant in order to take steps forward to the acquisition of genuine knowledge
Who was Plato?
- Student of Socrates, wealthy aristocrat
- Was a Greek wrestler (Plato was his wrestling name)
- Worked with students of Pythagoras
- Set up Academy in Athens, a school of philosophy.
- Wrote 'the dialogues' in which he used the ideas of Socrates as well as his own
What is Plato's cave idea?
- The world we see around us is just the surface of reality
- Deals with questions of epistemology and metaphysics (knowledge and reality)
What are 'The Dialogues'?
- Written by Plato
- Initially showing Socrates' ideas and then later his own, using the character of Socrates.
What is the Cave analogy a metaphor for?
- Philosophy and philosophers
- At first people do not see reality and then are gradually enlightened, though this is not a straight forward or easy process.
What does the sun represent in the cave analogy?
It represents 'the Good'
What attributes come from 'the Good'?
beauty, knowledge, reason and truth
What is aporia?
Knowing your ignorance
Why did philosophers, such as Socrates, find it difficult to believe that objects we see are reality?
Objects are not permanent and they are in a constant state of flux
How many worlds did Plato believe there was, and what were they?
He believed there were two worlds, the Physical and the Non-Physical world (where the realm of Forms is)
What, according to philosophers, gains knowledge?
The soul (psychē)
What is the highest kind of knowledge?
Why does the soul recognise Forms?
The soul used to dwell in the realm of the Forms, and wants to return there
What qualities must Forms have?
- They must be:
- Self-predicating (the form of beauty must itself be beautiful)
Why can the soul not remember the realm of Forms?
Memory of the realm is lost during the traumatic event of childbirth
Place these things in order of importance (most to least), according to Plato:
Forms of objects
- 1. The Good
- 2. Abstract forms
- 3. Forms of objects
- 4. Maths
- 5. Objects
- 6. Images