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2014-09-14 17:57:38
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  1. Name the phyla, subphyla, and common name (types) of human parasites
    • [phylum] Sarcomastigophora
    • [subphylum] Mastigophora (flagellates)
    • [subphylum] Sarcodina (amoebas)
    • [phylum] Apicomplexa (sporozoans)
    • [phylum] Ciliophora (Ciliates)
    • [phylum] Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
    • [class] Trematoda (flukes)
    • [class] Cestoda (tapeworms)
    • [phylum] Nematoda (roundworms)
    • [phylum] Arthropoda
  2. Compare/contrast the reproduction, locomotion, and typical location of organisms in the subphylums Mastigophora and Sarcodina
    • Mastigophora (flagellates) and Sarcodina (amoebas)
    • Both groups reproduce mainly by binary fission (asexual)
    • Flagellates move via long flagella - number and position vary with spp
    • Sarcodines move via pseudopods
    • Flagellates found in blood (Trypanosomes), intestine (Giardia), vagina/urethra (Trichomonas
    • Many Sarcodines are free living.  Entamoeba histolitica is found in the GI tract
  3. Describe the life cycle and location of organisms in the phylum Apicomplexa
    • Apicomplexa (sporozoans)
    • Have a complex life cycle (alternating sexual and asexual generations)
    • Found in blood (Plasmodium), intestinal mucosa (Isospora, CryptosporidiumSarcocystis), and various organs/tissues (ToxoplasmaPneumocystisBabesia)
  4. Describe the locomotion, and location of organisms in phylum Ciliophora
    • Ciliophora (ciliates)
    • Locomotion via cilia (like flagella, but shorter and more numerous)
    • Mostly free-living or symbiotic, but B. coli found in intestinal tract
    • *NOTE- the only ciliate parasite of humans is Balantidium coli
    • *NOTE- many are multinucleated
  5. Describe the body information, reproduction, size, and classes of phylum Platyhelminthes.  Give specific information about the two major subclasses.
    • Multicellular with flat body
    • Bilaterally symmetrical with incomplete gut (no anus)
    • Hermaphroditic (monoecious)
    • Size range is highly variable 
    • Class Turbellaria are free-living
    • Class Trematoda (flukes) are leaf-shaped with attachment organs (hooks, suckers)
    • they have an incomplete digestive tract
    • complex life histories with at least 2 hosts in the life cycle (1st intermediate host is a mollusk)
    • parasitize the intestinal tract, liver, blood vessels, and lungs
    • Class Cestoda (tapeworms) have elongated ribbon-like, segmented bodies
    • special attachment organ (scolex)
    • Digestive tract is absent (nutrition absorbed through body wall)
    • Typically reside in small intestine
  6. Describe the body information, reproduction, digestive system, locations, and life cycle information for phylum Nematoda
    • Nematoda (roundworms)
    • elongate, cylindrical worms w/ pointed ends and tough cuticle
    • separate sexes (dioecious)
    • males often smaller than females
    • most nematodes are free living, but many are parasites to humans, plants, and animals
    • Intermediate hosts are required for development of some forms
    • Human parasites found in intestinal tract and tissues
  7. Describe the body information, digestive system, reproduction, classifications, and notes of interest for phylum Arthropoda
    • Segmented with bilateral symmetry
    • Paired/jointed appendages
    • tough exoskeleton
    • digestive system is well developed
    • separate sexes (dioecious)
    • several subphyla, classes, orders, etc
    • *NOTE- the most successful animal phyla
    • *NOTE- many insects, arachnids, and crustaceans serve as parasites and vectors