Chapter 1 - Science Sustainable Ecosystems

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rawans
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283052
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Chapter 1 - Science Sustainable Ecosystems
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2014-09-17 21:36:22
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ecology
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Science
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Chapter 1 Cards due Thursday 25 2014
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  1. Ecosystem
    • - Includes all the interacting parts of a biological community and its environment
    • - i.e. forest, pond, arctic, sea, tundra, rain forest
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    An ecosystem capable of with standing pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms.

    Pressures may include: winter, humans, etc...

    • - all organisms require sustainable ecosystems for survival
    • - many depend on more than one ecosystem to survive
    • i.e. birds that migrate during the winter depend on many ecosystems (wetlands, forests etc...)
  3. Biotic
    One of the categories of all ecosystems

    • Characteristics:
    • - All the living/recently living parts of an ecosystem
    • i.e. tree, dead leaf, pigeon etc...

    • This includes:
    • - Plants (Producers)
    • - Animals (Consumer)
    • -Microorganisms (Consumer)
    • - Fungi (Consumer

    • Biotic Characteristics include all the interactions between the living organisms
    •   1. SYMBIOSIS interactions between members of two different species that live in close association
    • i.e. mushrooms & trees.
    •  
    • There are two main types of SYMBIOSIS:

    • a) Mutalism
    • -Which both organisms beneifit from the interaction(s)
    • i.e. crocodile & birds.

    • b) Parsitism 
    • -Where one benefits and the other is harmed 
    • i.e. tapeworm

    • PREDATION
    • - One organism consumes another 
    • i.e. wolf eats rabbit

    • COMPETITION
    • - Two or more organisms compete for the same resources such as food, space, water etc...
    • i.e. Dandelions (weeds) & grass
  4. Abiotic
    • These are the non-living parts of an ecosystem that organisms need to survive.
    • -water
    • -oxygen
    • -chemical nutrients
    • -soil (arguably biotic but since the dirt itslef isn't alive it is abiotic)
    • -light
  5. Lithosphere
    • Matter can occupy one of the four spheres of the earth.
    • -Ecological processes result in matter moving among the spheres
    • -Matter is constantly recycled through the four spheres but no mmatter is lost as it is recycled.
    • Sphere 1/4 is the lithosphere.
    • - It is the hard part of the Earth's surface.
    • (including rock & soil)
  6. Hydrosphere
    • Matter can occupy one of the four spheres of the earth.
    • -Ecological processes result in matter moving among the spheres
    • -Matter is constantly recycled through the four spheres but no matter is lost as it is recycled.
    • Sphere 2/4 is the hydrosphere.

    - All the water found on Earth including lakes, rivers, oceans, freshwater, ground water and etc...
  7. Atmosphere
    Matter can occupy one of the four spheres of the earth.

    • -Ecological processes result in matter moving among the spheres
    • -Matter is constantly recycled through the four spheres but no matter is lost as it is recycled.
    • Sphere 3/4 is the atmosphere.
    • -Layer of gases above the Earth's surface; includes air
  8. Biosphere
    Matter can occupy one of the four spheres of the earth.

    • Sphere 4/4 is the biosphere.
    • -Ecological processes result in matter moving among the spheres
    • -Matter is constantly recycled through the four spheres but no matter is lost as it is recycled.

    • -Regions of the Earth where living organisms exist 
    • - Not seperate from the other abiotic spheres, including life in soil, water, and air
  9. Nutrients
    • - Nutrient are chemicals that are needed by living organisms to survive
    • - Nutrients are cycled through the Earth's spheres
    • WATER CYCLE
    • - Water moves between the hydrosphere and the atmosphere as the Sun's rays evaporate  large amounts from oceans and other bodies of water.
    • - As water vapour rises it cools and condenses, eventually falling back to the lithosphere as precipitation in the form of rain, snow, ice, sleet etc..
    • - It enters the biosphere by being absorbed by plants and other organisms , or by being consumed by animals.
    • CARBON CYCLE
    • - Carbon moves between the atmosphere and biosphere as carbon dioxide
    • -CO2 moves back into the atmosophere when organisms die and their bodies decompose 
    • -CO2 enters the lithosphere when the remains of the organisms are trapped underground and after millions of years are converted to fossil fuels.
    • -CO2 is returned to the atmosphere when humans burn fossil fuels for energy 
    • NITROGEN CYCLE 
    • - Is transferred through the biosphere ansd lithosphere to the atmosphere through volcanoes, bacteria, etc... 
    • - Excess nitrate and ammonium eventually enter the lithosphere becoming part of the lithosphere, becoming part of the rocks and is only released when the rocks are broken down.
    • PHOSPHOROUS CYCLE 
    • - Phosphorous is found in the lithosphere as part of the rocks, through weathering it is realeased into the soil and absorbed into the biosphere 
    • -Bacteria break down the dead animals and release the phosphate back into the lithosphere.
    • -It is transferred to the hydrosphere through leaching and run-off.
    • -Some settles at the bottom as sediment and takes centuries to return to the biosphere
  10. Eutrophication
    • - Eutrophication is the process of adding nitrogen or phosphorus to an ecosystem that pushes it beyond the normal nutrient cycle and beyond sustainability
    • i.e. Too much fertilizer acuses algae to bloom, thus blocking sunlight from reaching aquatic plants and reduces the amount of oxygen in the water. When bacteria decompose the plants they use even more oxygen leaving the other organisms with an insufficent level of oxygen for suvival.
  11. Photosynthesis
    Conversion of solar energy to chemical energy to be used for "food"

    • Word equation:
    • Carbon Dioxide + Water + light & chlorophyll = glucose + oxygen

    • Chemical Equation:
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O + light & chlorophyll = C6H1206 +6O2

    • - It can be carried out by plants, algae and some bacteria
    • - Depends on light
    • -Chlorophyll is needed
    • -Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen are bonded to make sugar
    • -CO2 from air enters the pores in leaves and H2O enters plant roots
    • -O2 is added to the atmosphere for use in the cellular respiration process (used by all organisms)
  12. Trophic Levels
    Are categories of organisms defined by  how the organisms gain energy

    • - Primary Producers : can make their own food such as plants
    • -Consumers : Cannot make their own food; must consume other organisms to gain energy for survival

    • -Food chains can be used to show trophic levels in ecosystems
    • -Food pyramids can be used to show how energy moves through trophic levels in a food chain
  13. Biomass
    The total mass of living things of living organisms in a defined group or area
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    • A measure of the amount of energy or biomass  transferred from one trophic level to another (the next higher level)
    • - The percentage is always less than 100% because organisms use most of the energy for life functions (10% is passed on)
    • -Biomass decreases from one tropic level to the next due to factors such: the fact that the consumer doesnt eat the whole prey, not everything is digested, and energy is lost as heat
    • -The loss in energy is why there is usually less carnivores than herbbivores and fewer herbivores than plants
  15. Bioaccumulation
    • A process in which materials especially toxins are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they are eliminated
    • -Bioaccumulation of toxins from human-made pollution can be destructive to species
    • (i.e. DDT, PCB's)
  16. Biomagnification
    Is the increase in the concentration of a toxin as it moves to one trophic level to the next
  17. Cellular Respiration
    • A process that releases energy from molecules under aerobic conditions.
    • - All living organisms undergo cellular respiration
    • -Releases carbon dioxide
  18. Fermentation
    • A process that releases energy from organic molecules under anaerobic conditions.
    • - Bacteria and some fungi undergo fermentation to obtain energy
    • -Release Methane (greenhouse gas)
  19. Greenhouse Gases
    Greenhouse gases are atmospheric gases such as methane and carbon dioxide that pervent heat from leaving the atmosphere thus resulting in the warming of the Earth.
  20. Greenhouse Effect
    - The warming of the Earth as a result of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which trap some of the energy that would otherwise leave the Earth.
  21. Acid Precipitation
    • The result of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide in combination with water in the atmosphere which create nitric acid and sulfuric acid which inn turn fall as acid percipitation with pH levels as low as 4.2. 
    • - Effects include:
    • - Loss of nutrients from forest soils (results in a decrease of calcium, maggnesium  etc.. but increases aluminium which intereferes with nutrient absorption bby plant roots and if leaked into water causes fish to suffocate and die)
    • - Lowers pH levels of aquatic ecosystems, causing problems for fish, amphibians, and invertabrates
    • - Can kill the organism(s) directly or by interfering with the food chain by removing food from the lower trophic levels

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