Pediatrics Communicating with Families Exam 1
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What are the four different types of communication?
- Non-Verbal (body language)
- Abstract (play, art)
- Paralanguage (pitch of voice)
How do children respond to communication?
- Young children are very adept to understanding non-verbal and paralanguage
- Can sense anxiety and fear by the rise in pitch or accelerated rate of voice
- Children respond attentively to a slow, even, steady voice
What are some blocks to effective communication?
- Closed ended yes/no questions
- Prejudice or preconvieved ideas
- Unaddressed fears of the child or caregiver
- Child, parent or caregiver not being treated with respect
- Insufficient information
- Not answering minor questions, such as those related to diet
- Failure to include parents in the care plan
- Failure of the nurse to understand the parent-child relationship
- Failure of the nurse to meet the developmental needs of the child
- Failure to take into cultural aspects
Describe some useful communication techniques for children
- Use "I" messages
- 3rd person technique
- Bibliotherapy (through books)
- "What if" questions
- Three wishes questions
- rating game
What theory is key in understanding effective communication with children?
ERIKSON'S THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT
Describe how Infants communicate according to Erikson's developmental theory
- Developing a sense of Trust
- Rely on non-verbal communication
- Respond to firm, gentle handing and quiet, calm speech
- Use sensory soothing measures
- Hold infants so that they can see their parents and keep frightening objects out of sight
- Maintain crib as a safe place and do all invasive procedures in the procedure room
- Model desired behavior as they imitate gestures
How do Toddlers communicate according to Erikson's theory of development?
- Toddlers are developing a sense of autonomy
- Focus on themselves and cannot relate to other's feelings
- Describe to them what they will see, hear, feel, touch, smell and let them examine things
- Tell them what to do and what they can do. Offer choices when appropriate to allow to participate in care
- Ignore negative behaviors and utilize distraction
- Use short, simple language with concrete ideas as they will take things literally
Describe how preschoolers communicate according to Erikson's theory of development
- Continue to use simple terms and demonstrate use of equipment
- Allow child to play with the equipment and offer choices when appropriate
- Often view illness and hospitalization as form of punishment, emphasize that it is not
- Involve in care whenever possible
How do school age children communicate according to Erikson's theory of development?
- Interested in functional aspects and wants an explanation and reason for everything
- Use correct medical terms, anatomy and encourage questions
- Allow to manipulate equipment, be responsible for simple tasks, and actively participate in cae
- Include in decision making
Describe how adolescents communicate according to Erikson's theory of development
- Adolescents are developing a sense of Identity
- Listen attentively and talk more freely
- Avoid prying, embarrassing questions, passing judgement and giving advice
- Give support, be attentive and try not to interrupt
- Provide detailed explanations and involve them in the decision making
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