2500 test one

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2500 test one
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2014-09-15 02:24:11
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  1. 4 characteristics of language
    • language is a system of symbols
    • language is shared
    • the language system is conventional
    • language is a tool for human communication
  2. Speech involves the activation of 4 systems
    respiration, phonation, resonation, articulation
  3. Experts generally agree that speech became the dominant mode for language because of its advantages over grunting or gesturing
    sharing language, communication in more situations, mass communication
  4. Transmission and reception of speech involve four acoustic events
    • -Creation of a sound source (set of vibrations
    • -Vibration of air particles
    • -Reception by the ear
    • -Comprehension by the brain
  5. Communication involves 4 basic processes
    -Sender


    • Formulation - process of pulling together thoughts for sharing
    • Transmission - The process of convein these ideas to another person


    -Receiver


    • Reception - receiving the message
    • Comprehension - process of making sense of a message
  6. fixing a communication breakdown is called
    conversational repair
  7. when an individual communicates about a specific entity, and the relationship and its referent are arbitrary
    Symbolic communication (Referential Communication)
  8. communication in which other people assume the relationship between a communicative behavior and its referent
    Preintentional communication
  9. relatively more precise in its intent, but the relationship between the communicative behavior and its referent are not arbitrary
    It relies on the shared spatial position among the sender, the recipient, and the referent
    Transparent relationship between the message and its referent.
    Intentional communication (Iconic communication)
  10. People share information for three basic purposes
    • to request
    • to reject
    • to comment
  11. language consists of
    form, content, use
  12. -how words, sentences, and sounds are organized and arranged to convey content
    -when one examines form, one examines things such as sentence structure, clause and phrase usage, parts of speech, verb and noun structures, clause and phrase usage, parts of speech, verb and noun structures, word prefixes and suffixes, and the organization of sounds into words
    form
  13. -the meaning of language, the words used and the meaning behind them
    -convey content with our lexicon
    content
  14. Pertains to how people draw on language functionally to meet personal and social needs. The intentions behind the utterances, and how well these utterances achieve their intentions
    use
  15. rules of language governing the sounds used to make syllables and words
    phonology (form)
  16. he rules of language governing the internal organization of words

    -words are morphed in a variety of ways to change their meaning, such as adding prefixes, allows a small core of words to be morphed into a much larger pool of word families
    morphology (form)
  17. refers to the rules of language governing the internal organization of sentences, it provides structure to sentences
    syntax (form)
  18. refers to the rules of language governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations. 

    -it considers the meaning of various words and phrases
    semantics (content)
  19. pertains to the rules governing how language is used for social purposes. includes linguistic, extralinguistic, and paralinguistic
    pragmatics (use)
  20. is the aspect of language that allows people to represent the world. Ex: saying the word cup without a cup present still represents what a cup is without context
    semanticity
  21. differences in the form, content, and use of their language
    language difference
  22. About __% of the variability in a language ability in 4 year old children can be attributed to heritability
    16
  23. ___ is the most common type of communication impairment in children
    SLI
  24. Children with heritable language impairment exhibit depressed language abilities, typically with no ____ impairment of intellect, because of its specificity to the functioning of language
    concomitant
  25. 5 Remarkable features of Language
    • -acquisition rate of language in children
    • -universality of language
    • -species specificity
    • -semanticity (decontextualization)
    • -productivity
  26. Although much basic research focuses specifically on developing, testing, and refining theories, one type concentrates on building connections between theory and practice
    use inspired basic research. evidence based practice (ebp)
  27. Scientists who conduct applied research on language development do so usually in 3 main contexts: homes, clinical settings, schools
    homes, clinical settings, schools
  28. Scientists who study language do so in two ways:
    by learning how to identify person at risk for or exhibiting disordered language development and by developing ways to remediate delays and disorders in language when they do occur
  29. 3 aspects of language development that are really important
    • -Speech perception
    • -Language production
    • -Language Comprehension
  30. norms to determine how many words typically developing children understand and produce at various ages.
    Communicative Development Inventories (CDI)
  31. describe the ages by which children can produce particular phonemes, as well as the order in which children master the
    Sanders Norms
  32. In semistructured settings, researchers ___ in some way the environment in which they are observing
    manipulate
  33. In the study of comprehension, researchers try to estimate what children or adults _____ rather than what they can ______
    understand, produce
  34. Nurture inspired theories are often called _____ theories, as they rest on the notion that humans gain all knowledge through experience
    empiricist
  35. Nature inspired theories are called ____ theories, generally hold that much knowledge is innate and genetically transmitted raather than learned by experience
    nativist
  36. According to his language development theory, children arrive at the task of language learning without any innate knowledge, rather, environmental stimuli elicit verbal responses from chilren
    -Complex behavior consists of a series, or chain, of behaviors, in which each step in the process stimulates each successive behavior
    skinner
  37. -stressed the importance of social interaction for children's language development
    -All human knowledge exists first on a social plane and then on a psych plane. In other words all concepts are introduced first in the context of social interactions with more capable people. Examining what other people do with mediated 
    assistance is necessary for identification of maturing capabilities
    -Zone of proximal development characterizes development dynamically by describing abilities in children that are in the process of maturing rather than by focusing solely on abilities that have already matured
    vygotsky's social interactionist theory
  38. An important element of Piagets work was his emphasis on the stages of learning and development.
    -He hypothesized a series of cognitive stages that children experience and emphasized that achievements in one stage must occur before a child can move on to the next stage
    -Believed that language was a domain-general rather than domain specific abilitiy
    -His perspective on the subservience of language to cognition has been referred to as the cognition hypothesis because certain cognitive achievements need to be in place for language achievements to emerge
    -He did not view language as a special faculty but as an ability that reflects developments in other areas of growth, such as perceptive, cognitive, and social processes.
    piaget
  39. Infants provide substantial evidence that they engage in periods of sustained joint attention with other individuals, actively direct the attention of other people to objects and events, and behind to use communication intentions to achieve various ends
    -A critical premise of this theory is the childs skills in intention reading, which emerges during infancy, it is the childs ability to recognize the intentions and mental states of other people, corresponding to the increasing capacity of the infant to engage communicatively with other persons
    usage based model
  40. This implicit knowledge that children have about language is called (chomsky)
    linguistic competence
  41. actual comprehension and production of language in specific situation is called (chomsky)
    linguistic performance
  42. Postulated that language acquisition depends on an innate, species-specific module dedicated to language and not to other forms of learning
    -Theorized the existence of one language module called the language acquisition device
    -Children are born with a basic set of grammatical rules and categories that exist in all languages, and the input they receive sets parameters to math those of their native language
    chomskys universal grammar theory
  43. describes the process by which children use the syntactic frames surrounding unknown verbs to successfully constrain the possible interpretations of the verbs
    -A nature inspired account of language development focused specifically on syntactic development. It proposes that children arrive at the task of language learning with knowledge of syntactic categories and use this knowledge to understand the meanings of words that fill various positions in sentences
    -Posits that children probably use additional linguistic information particularly the syntax of the sentence-as they learn meanings of new verbs
    syntactic bootstrapping
  44. uses the bootstrap metaphor to illustrate how children acquire particular linguistic concepts with minimal outside assistance
    -Children deduce grammatical structures by using word meanings they acquire from observing events around them
    semantic bootstrapping
  45.  is a third type of bootstrapping that suggests that infants use their sensitivity to the acoustic properties of speech to make inferences about units of language, including clauses, phrases and words
    -When infants are sensitive to the acoustic patterns of their native language, they may be better able to isolate important language units from running speech, and eventually they begin to assign meaning to those units
    prosodic bootstrapping
  46. include ideas governing language processing and automaticity and the role of tangible and intangible rewards that the speaker gains through language use
    cognitive principles
  47. are related to the individuals confidence with language learning and his or her propensity to take risks with respect to language
    affective principles
  48. describe the role of a persons native language in simultaneously facilitating and interfering with second language acquisition
    linguistic properties
  49. ____ develop prior to _____, typically in the first year of life
    vowels, consonants
  50. The timing for development of phonemes is influenced by the _____ of occurrence of the phoneme, the _______ that a child uses that contain a given phoneme, and the ________ of producing the phoneme
    frequency, number of words, articulatory complexity
  51. _____ _____ thus provides children with the tools for grammatical inflection as well las a means for expanding their vocabulary from a smaller set of root words
    morphological development
  52. When a child includes a grammatical morpheme in __% or more of obligatory contexts, they are said to have mastered the morpheme
    75
  53. children have the sophisticated ability of ______ _____ that allow them to organize words into larger prepostions by gradually internalizing the grammatical system of their language.
    syntactic development
  54. Children exhibit 3 major syntactic achievements
    • -An increase in utterance length
    • -Use of different sentence modalities
    • -The development of complete syntax
  55. Influences on Semantic Development
    gender, language impairment, language exposure

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