TAW12

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TAW12
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  1. 3 key areas of SAP
    • on device: extending reach of customers
    • on demand: innovating through extensions
    • on premise: scaling customers core businesses
  2. 4 SAP Produts according to business size ascending
    • SAP Business One: Up to 100
    • SAP Business ByDesign: 100-500
    • SAP Business All-In-One: Up to 2500
    • SAP Business Suite: 2500 and more
  3. 5 Core applications of SAP Business Suite
    • SAP ERP
    • SAP CRM
    • SAP SCM
    • SAP SRM
    • SAP PLM
  4. 5 benefits of SAP NetWeaver
    • reduce IT complexity
    • increase business flexibility
    • lowest cost of operation
    • best business availability
    • monitoring with business process management
  5. 3 Levels of SAP NetWeaver Application Server
    • Database Level
    • Application Server Level
    • Presentation Server Level
  6. 6 capabilities of SAP NetWeaver
    • Composition Environment
    • Business Warehouse
    • Process Integration
    • Portal
    • Mobile
    • AS ABAP
  7. 3 shipment phases
    • Beta: Optional, for testing only
    • Restricted: ramp-up
    • Unrestricted: default release
  8. 3 types of maintenance
    • Mainstream: restricted and unrestricted phase
    • Extended: after mainstream with extra fee
    • Customer-Specific: No updates or support packages
  9. 2 Maintenance rules
    • 5-1-2: Old rule, 1+2 years extended maint.
    • 7-2: New rule since 11/2008
  10. 3 User interfaces and according products
    • SAP GUI: SAP ERP
    • Browser-Based: BI, Business ByDesign
    • SAP NW Business Client: Business All-In-One
  11. 2 runtime environments of SAP NetWeaver
    • AS Java
    • AS ABAP
  12. 5 ABAP work processes and cardinality to dispatcher
    • Dialog: At least two for each dispatcher
    • Spool: At least one for each dispatcher
    • Update: At least one for each dispatcher
    • Background: At least one for each dispatcher
    • Enqueue: At least one for each dispatcher
  13. 3 additional ABAP Runtime Services
    • Message Server: Communication between dispatchers
    • Gateway process: Communicaton between different systems
    • Internet Communication Manager (ICM): Communication through web protocols
  14. 3 Types of SAP NetWeaver AS Installation Options
    • AS ABAP
    • AS JAVA
    • Dual Stack (AS ABAP + JAVA)
  15. 4 functions of the ABAP dispatcher
    • Coordination with operating system
    • Distributing requests among the work processes
    • organizing communication activities
    • Saving processing requests in FI-FO-queues
  16. 4 terms of ACID-principle of transactions
    • A: Atomic
    • C: Consistent
    • I: Isolated
    • D: Durable
  17. 11 SAP interface technologies
    • ALE: Application Link Enabling
    • BAPI: Business Application Programming Interface
    • CPI-C: Common Program Interface Communication
    • EDI: Electronic Data Interchange
    • LU 6.2: Logical Unit 6.2
    • RFC: Remote Function Call
    • OLE: Object Linking and Embedding
    • SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
    • SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
    • TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
    • XML: Extensible Markup Language
  18. 4 use cases for BAPIs
    • Linking business process accross systems
    • Integrating SAP solutions
    • Connection to internet
    • Connection to external programs
  19. 7 decision points when implementing ALE
    • Business process
    • Involved Objects
    • Information to be transmitted
    • Data format
    • Transfer technology
    • Transfer type ( (A)-Synchronous) )
    • Target destination
  20. 4 implemented Web-Service-Standards in SAP NetWeaver AS
    • XML: Extensible Markup Language
    • SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
    • WSDL: Webservice Description Language
    • UDDI: Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
  21. 2 Approaches for creating Web-Services
    • Inside-Out: Create WSDL from existing functions
    • Outside-In: Create functions with interface from existing WSDL
  22. 2 Guiding principles of SOA
    • Reuse
    • Compliance of standards
  23. 3 characteristics of enterprise services
    • Business semantics: Enterprise model based on Global Data Types, business objects and process components
    • Quality and stability: Stable interface with backward capability
    • Standards: Based on open standards
  24. 3 advantages of using development projects
    • Monitor activities
    • Only project members can access the objects
    • Collect change requests
  25. 4 attributes of a package
    • Application Component
    • Software Component
    • Transport Layer
    • Package Type
  26. 6 Basic ABAP principles
    • Typed
    • Multi-Language-Applications
    • SQL-Access
    • Object-oriented
    • Platform-independent
    • Upward-compatible
  27. 6 Characteristics of ABAP syntax
    • Individual statements
    • First word in statement is called ABAP keyword
    • Statements end with a period
    • A space always separates two words
    • Statements can be intended
    • No lower/upper case in keywords
  28. 7 Important options of the new ABAP Editor
    • Different colors for different objects in code
    • Fonts and font sizes for each user
    • Compression of code locks
    • Code bookmarks
    • Lines numbers for orientation
    • Word suggestion
    • Code completion
  29. 6 Steps when activating an object
    • Saving object as an inactive version
    • Checking syntax of inactive version
    • Checking consistency of inactive version
    • Overwriting current active version
    • Setting current version as inactive
    • Generating relevant runtime object
  30. 3 Steps when releasing a change request
    • Object locks are removed
    • Copies of the objects are exported to systems transport directory
    • Copy is stored in systems version database
  31. 4 Ways of using data types
    • Define data objects
    • Define interface parameters
    • Define input/output fields
    • Defining program variables
  32. 8 Complete ABAP standard data types
    • D: Date
    • T: Time
    • I: Integer with length 4
    • F: Float with length 8
    • String: Dynamic length string
    • XString: Dynamic length Hex-String
    • DECFLOAT16: 8 byte numbers
    • DECFLOAT34: 16 byte numbers
  33. 4 Incomplete ABAP standard data types with length to be specified
    • C: Character String
    • N: Numerical string 
    • X: Byte sequence
    • P: Packed number
  34. 3 categories of data types
    • Standard
    • Local
    • Global
  35. 4 Advantages of Global Data Types
    • Usage throughout the system
    • Lower maintenance effort through reusage
    • Usage of where-used-list
    • Can contain semantic information
  36. 8 Relevant system fields
    • sy-mandt: Logon client
    • sy-uname: Logon username
    • sy-langu: Logon language
    • sy-datum: current data
    • sy-uzeit: current time
    • sy-tcode: current transaction
    • sy-repid: current program
    • sy-index: current loop counter
  37. 6 Dialog message types with behaviour and message appearance
    • I: Info - continue after breakpoint - modal dialog box
    • S: Set - continue - status bar of next screen
    • W: Warning - context-dependent - status bar
    • E: Error - context-dependent - status bar
    • A: Abort - termination - modal dialog box
    • X: Short dump - Runtime error - short dump
  38. 6 Functions of new ABAP Debugger
    • Debugger in second session
    • Parallel display options
    • Integration of new ABAP Editor
    • Quick info for value display
    • Watchpoint in internal tables and object references
    • Value comparison
  39. 2 techniques for local modularization units
    • Subroutines
    • Methods in local classes
  40. 2 techniques for global modularization units
    • Function modules
    • Methods in global classes
  41. 4 parameter types of modularization units
    • Importing
    • Exporting
    • Changing
    • Using (Subroutines)
  42. 3 pass types for subroutines
    • Call by Value: parameter is copied
    • Call by value and result: Copy is written back to original
    • Call by reference: actual parameter is assigned directly to formal parameter, no copy necessary
  43. 3 Components of a function group
    • Data objects
    • Subroutines
    • Screens
  44. 5 Components of the interface of a function module
    • Import parameter
    • Export Parameter
    • Changing parameter
    • Tables
    • Exceptions
  45. 6 Features of function module documentation
    • Short text
    • Functional description
    • Example of use
    • Notes
    • Parameter description
    • Exception description
  46. 4 Standard BAPI functions
    • GetList: List of selected objects
    • GetDetail: Detailed object information
    • Create, Change, Delete, Cancel: Object operations
    • AddItem, RemoveItem: Adding and removing subobjects
  47. 6 Technical requirements for BAPI function modules
    • Naming convention: BAPI_<business object name>_<method name>
    • Remote enabled
    • No user dialoges or messages
    • Name prefix for BAPI structures: BAPI
    • No changing parameters
    • Raise no exceptions
  48. 3 typical use cases for internal tables
    • retaining data from tables for processing
    • formatting data for output
    • formatting data for using other services
  49. 3 properites of an internal table
    • Line type: Any type
    • Primary key: Unique or Non-Unique
    • Table type: Standard, sorted, hashed
  50. 6 Operations for internal tables
    • APPEND: Append structure to table
    • INSERT: Insert structure into table
    • READ TABLE: copy a row to structure
    • MODIFY TABLE: Overwrite row from structure
    • DELETE: Delete a row
    • COLLECT: Accumulate structure to row
  51. 3 information attributes of transparent tables
    • Determination of the key: Key fields
    • Technical properties: Expected size and access frequency
    • Settings for speed up: secondary indexes and buffering
  52. 4 Types of reuse components that encapsulate database access
    • Logical databases
    • Function modules
    • BAPIs
    • Methods of global classes
  53. 6 standard functions of a selection screen
    • Multi-language texts
    • Any type of input field possible
    • Complex (Select-Option) and simple selections (Prameter)
    • Field-Documentation with F1 when using Dict-Types
    • Usage of Search Help
    • Save completed Selections as Variant
  54. 3 Limitations for Parameters on Selection screens
    • Name of parameter up to 8 characters
    • No usage of F, XSTRING and STRING
    • Default value with "DEFAULT" addition
  55. 6 Event Block characteristics
    • Introduced with an event keyword
    • Ends with begin of next event
    • Cannot be nested
    • Existence not absolutely necessary
    • Sequence is unimportant
    • Implicit standard event: START-OF-SELECTION
  56. 3 Areas on initial Code inspector screen
    • Check Variant: Determines checks to perform
    • Object Set: Determines Objects to check
    • Inspection: Refers to actual check
  57. 6 Check categories in Code Inspector
    • General Checks
    • Performance Checks
    • Security Checks
    • Syntax Check and Generation
    • Programming Conventions
    • Search Functions
  58. 2 options of calling another program synchronously
    • Insert: Pause current program and return
    • New Start: Terminate current program and leave
  59. 5 Fields of Global Type BDCDATA (Batch-Input Field-Structure)
    • program: Program name
    • dynpro: Screen name
    • dynbegin: First record
    • fnam: Field name
    • fval: Field value
  60. 2 situations when the system LOAD (runtime object) is generated
    • When program is called and no LOAD exists yet
    • When LOAD in program buffer or database is obsolete
  61. 5 steps that occur when an object is activated
    • Object is saved
    • Active version is overwritten
    • Current version gets active version (No inactive version anymore)
    • New runtime version is created
    • LOAD is updated
  62. 4 Non-modifiable parts of a program
    • Byte code for statements
    • Values of constants and literals
    • Program texts
    • Screen definitions
  63. 3 characteristics of an external session (main session)
    • corresponds to a SAP-GUI window
    • Up to 16 sessions possible
    • rdisp/max_alt_modes sets max sessions (default 6)
  64. 6 characteristics of an internal session
    • Placed in a stack
    • Belongs to an external session
    • Generated with each program call
    • Maximum of 9 for each external session
    • Must all belong to the same call stack
    • One roll area for each internal session
  65. 5 Actions that occur with SUBMIT statement
    • System ends calling program
    • System destroys current internal session
    • System creates new internal session with context of calling program
    • System places session in stack
    • Topmost internal session is replaced
  66. 5 Techniques for passing data between programs in different program groups
    • Interface of called program
    • ABAP memory
    • SAP memory
    • Database tables
    • Local files on presentation server
  67. 2 Types of boxed components
    • Substructures of nested structures
    • Structured attributes of classes and interfaces
  68. 3 Use Cases for boxed components
    • Boxed component often remains initial
    • Boxed component is not too small
    • Boxed component is used often
  69. 5 Advantages of Database Views
    • Can be reused
    • Usage for lists and search functions
    • Buffering like tables
    • Common fields are only transported once
    • Implemented as inner join - data is only transferred, if outer table supplies match
  70. 6 Possible components of a structure
    • Data element
    • Integrated type
    • Table type
    • Tables and Views
    • Other structures
    • Object reference
  71. 4 Important data classes when creating a table
    • Master data: seldom modified
    • Transaction data: frequently modified
    • Organizational data: seldom modified
    • System data: Program sources, etc.
  72. 3 Advantages of Pooled and Cluster Tables
    • Fewer tables and fields
    • Data compression
    • Encrypted data storage
  73. 6 Disadvantages of Pooled and Cluster Tables
    • No Native SQL
    • No Views or JOINS
    • No secondary IndexesNo GORUP and ORDER BY
    • No table appends
    • Selection limited to cluster key fields
    • Longer keys than necessary (Pooled tables)
  74. 4 Points to consider when creating an index
    • small as possible
    • Only usage of significant fields
    • Usage in tables which data is not changed frequently
    • As disjunct as possible
  75. 3 Buffering Types
    • Full: All data is read to buffer
    • Generic: Check for left justified key
    • Single-Record: Only read records
  76. 2 Advantages of buffering and its synchronization
    • Minimize Network load
    • Increase performance by factor 10 to 100
  77. 2 Disadvantages of buffering and its synchronization
    • Obsolete data between moments of synchronization
    • Usage of system memory
  78. 2 Decision points for full buffering
    • Table size smaller than 32 KB
    • Data accessed by left justified key
  79. 3 Characteristics of a foreign key
    • Is a primary key in another table
    • Links two tables
    • Only checked during screen input and value help
  80. 4 Types of foreign keys
    • Not specified: No info given
    • No key fields: No primary key of the foreign table
    • Key fields: Primary key of foreign table
    • Key fields of text table: key of text table which has additional language field
  81. 4 points of information a runtime object contains
    • Overall structure
    • individual structure fields
    • Info required by database interface
    • Created for all usable dictionary objects (Data element, structure, etc.)
  82. 3 ways to change a database table
    • Delete and Create
    • Change with ALTER TABLE
    • Converting the table
  83. 4 Characteristics of Append-Structures
    • Extend SAP tables withput changing table definition
    • Assigned to exactly one table
    • Several append structures for one table possible
    • Protected against overwriting while update
  84. 4 Restrictions for Append-Structures
    • Not for pooled and cluster tables
    • Not for Tables containg a long field (LCHR, LRAW -> Always last field of table)
    • Fields have to be in Customer-namespace (ZZ,YY)
    • Structure in customer namespace
  85. 2 ways of enhancing SAP standard tables
    • Customizing includes
    • Append structures
  86. Enhancement categories of SAP standard tables
    • 1 - Not classified: No category
    • 2 - Not enhanceable: cannot be enhanced
    • 3 - Enhanceable and character-like: Only character-like enhancements
    • 4 - Enhanceable and character-like or numerical: Only character-like or numerical enhancements
    • 5- Freely extendable: Enhancements with optional data types
  87. 2 Disadvantages of maintenance views
    • No asynchronous update
    • Only for Customizing and Customer tables
  88. 3 Advantages of a view cluster
    • Navigation through maintenance dialogs
    • Combine up to 14 dialogs
    • Consistency of related tables
  89. 4 Characteristics of Append Search Helps
    • Collective Search help assigned to another collective search help
    • Uses interface of its appending objects
    • Separate Components
    • Irrelevant elementary search helps can be hidden
  90. 3 Characteristics of Search Help Exit
    • Function module with standardized interface
    • Predefined function modules with prefix F4UT
    • Usage only in exceptional cases
  91. 6 Additions for SELECT-OPTIONS statement
    • DEFAULT: Default value for parameters
    • MEMORY ID: Retrieve from SAP memory
    • LOWER CASE: Suppress conversion to upper case
    • OBLIGATORY: Makes field obligatory
    • NO-EXTENSION: Suppress multiple selections
    • NO INTERVALS: Suppress upper interval limit (High)
  92. 5 Process Steps of a selection Screen
    • LOAD-OF-PROGRAM: Implicit
    • INITIALIZATION: Preassign values to parameters
    • AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT: Input evaluation
    • AT SELECTION-SCREEN: Processed after display
    • START-OF-SELECTION: Process selections
  93. 3 Components for a selection screen with tabstrips
    • Subscreen area
    • Individual tab titles
    • Sub Selection screens for individual tab titles
  94. 3 Characteristics of Report Variants
    • Directly assigned to a program
    • As many variants for each program as you want
    • Variant with prefix CUS is transported with the report
  95. 2 Complete program types (Executable)
    • Type 1: Executable
    • Type M: Module Pool with transaction code
  96. 4 Incomplete Program types (Non-executable)
    • Type F: Function group
    • Type I: Include
    • Type J: Interface Pool
    • Type K: Class pool
  97. 4 Screen types
    • Normal
    • Subscreen
    • Modal Dialog Box
    • Selection Screen
  98. 3 Categories of screen attributes
    • Defined statically and not changeable
    • Defined statically and changeable
    • Only set dynamically
  99. 2 software processors for screen processing
    • ABAP processor: control program flow in a module
    • DYNP processor: Control flow logic and prepare data for display
  100. 2 Components of a program's user interface
    • GUI titles
    • GUI statuses
  101. 4 Elements of a GUI status
    • Menu Bar: Functions for the program
    • Standard Toolbar: same on every screen
    • Application toolbar: frequently used functions
    • Function key settings: Assigned functions like Find or replace
  102. 3 Methods to create a GUI title
    • Object List in Object Navigator
    • Menu Painter
    • Forward Navigation from ABAP Editor
  103. 4 Types of key settings for a screen
    • Screen
    • Dialog Box
    • List
    • List in a dialog box
  104. 5 Characteristics of a text field on a screen
    • fixed rectangular area
    • label for other elements
    • user cannot change them at runtime
    • More words are separated by Underscore
    • No begin with Underscore or question mark
  105. 5 Characteristics of Status Icons
    • Special output fields to display icons
    • placeholder for an icon
    • Relevant Icos is chosen at runtime
    • two to four characters
    • predefined in system
  106. 3 Characteristics of group boxes for screens
    • Enclose elements belonging together (Radio buttons)
    • Can have a title
    • Can be changed dynamically
  107. 3 Types of input field checks
    • Automatic: Related to data type
    • Data Consistency: Reference to data dictionary
    • Input Helps: Value Help
  108. 3 Characteristics of Dropdown-Lists
    • No free value entering
    • Field values come from Dictionary
    • Selection triggers PAI with OK-Code
  109. 4 Characteristics of Parameters for SAP Memory
    • Save input and output fields in SAP memory
    • Available in all external and internal user sessions
    • SET-Parameter ist set in PAI
    • GET-Parameter is fetched in PBO
  110. 5 Characteristics of a field specific validation
    • Use Field statement with MODULE addition
    • Check in Module is only processed for given Field
    • Thrown back to same screen on error
    • Specified field is set ready for input
    • Include more fields to be ready with a Chain
  111. 4 Process steps when error is thrown on a screen
    • Current screen is sent back
    • PBO is not processed again
    • Assigned fields are ready for input
    • PAI is continued after data change
  112. 4 Characteristics of subscreens
    • Reserved area to place a screen at runtime
    • Cannot contain other screen elements
    • Independent screen within another screen
    • Can be reused by other programs
  113. 2 Functions that subscreens supply
    • Display a group of objects from main screen
    • display or hide extra fields on main screen
  114. 4 Use cases for subscreens
    • Screen enhancements (Screen Exits)
    • Within other screen objects
    • Modification assistant
    • Web transactions
  115. 5 Restrictions for subscreens
    • No call in Loops or Chains
    • No OK-Code field
    • Unique Object Names within all subscreens
    • No Modules with AT EXIT-COMMAND addition
    • No usage of statements SET TITLEBAR, SET PF-STATUS, SET SCREEN and LEAVE SCREEN
  116. 3 Restrictions when using tabstrips
    • Screen surrounding the tabstrip must remain constant
    • No usage for applications with a fixed order of steps
    • Changes always affect only the current tab
  117. 4Attributes of a tab title
    • Name
    • Text
    • Function code
    • Function type: P => PAI is not triggered
  118. 4 Components of a procedural ABAP program
    • Type definitions
    • Data declarations
    • Main program
    • Definition of subroutines
  119. 2 Features of encapsulation with function groups
    • Modularization units to encapsulate functions and data
    • Work with global data of main program
  120. 2 Features of encapsulation with objects
    • Objects to encapsulate functions and data
    • Create multiple instances
  121. 3 Characteristics of principle of delegation
    • No redundant objects
    • Object offers service it is responsible for
    • Additional services are requested from other objects
  122. 4 Concepts of object-oriented programming
    • Delegation: Each object delivers non-redundant services
    • Inheritance: Implementation relationships between classes
    • Polymorphism: Instances respond differently to the same messages
    • Event control: Ojects recieve and trigger events
  123. 3 Key characteristics of object oriented programming
    • Objects are a direct abstraction of the real world
    • Objects are units of data and functions
    • Better implementation of processes
  124. 6 advantages of object oriented programming
    • Improved software structure
    • Improved consistency
    • Reduced maintenance effort
    • Less susceptibility to errors
    • Better integration of users into implementation process
    • Simple and secure extension of software
  125. 3 types of object oriented diagrams
    • Class diagram: relationships between classes
    • Behaviour diagram: Sequence of object relationships
    • Component diagram: Organization and dependencies of components
  126. 4 Characteristics of a class
    • Set of objects with same structure and behaviour
    • Blueprint for all objects
    • Container for Components like attributes, types, methods, etc.
    • classes cannot be nested
  127. 3 types of class attributes
    • Elementary
    • Structured
    • Table type
  128. 5 Restrictions for a constructor
    • Only One constructor for a class
    • Definition in the public area
    • Signature only with Importing and Exceptions
    • Exception causes that no instance is created
    • Cannot be called explicitely
  129. 3 Events that trigger the Class Constructor
    • Instance creation
    • Access of static attributes or methods
    • Registration of an event handler method for a class event
  130. 5 Restrictions for Class Constructors
    • Only one Class Constructor for one class
    • Definition in the public area
    • Is called only once, not for each instance
    • No signature
    • No explicit call

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