Chapter 5 - Master Terms

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  1. ceiling effect
    A testing or measurement condition in which there is little opportunity for upward movement (or improvement), as when test items are too easy and participants' scores were very high to begin with.
  2. floor effect
    Condition in which the opportunity for change downward is limited by the lower boundary of a measure.
  3. Likert scales
    Attitude scales constructed by the method of summated ratings, developed by R. Likert.
  4. numerical scales
    Rating scales in which the respondent works with a sequence of defined numbers.
  5. open-ended items
    Questions or statements that offer respondents an opportunity to express their feelings, motives, opinions, or reactions spontaneously.
  6. rating scales
    The common name for a variety of measuring instruments on which the observer or judge gives a numerical value (either explicitly or implicitly) to certain judgments or assessments.
  7. fixed choice scales (or fixed-choice items)
    Questions or measures with fixed response options (also called structuredprecoded, or closed).
  8. halo effect
    A biased response set in which a judge overextends a positive central trait to a person's other characteristics and thus forms an overall favorable impression of that person.
  9. norm referenced
    Indicating that a standardized test has norms (i.e., typical values), so that a person's score can be compared with the scores of a reference group.
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Chapter 5 - Master Terms
Chapter 5
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