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When 2 party system emerged and name of parties
yr.1794-6: Framers didn't want separate parties. but conflict=2 political factions: Madison’s Democratic Republican Party (limited federal power, was pro-French, and pro-farmers), and Hamilton’s Federalists (pro-British, strong federal government, upper urban class, New England based).
1798 Acts (Sedition Act, etc.)
support by Adams (president)-limited freedom of speech,press and immigration. The Naturalization Act extended from 5 to 14 years of residence necessary before citizenship. Alien Act/Alien Enemies Act authorized the President to order jail time or deportation suspected aliens during wartime. The Sedition Act imposed heavy fines and jail for writing, publishing or speaking anything “false, scandalous, and malicious” against the government or officers. The plan was to use these Acts against the Democratic Republicans. Madison and Jefferson responded by writing the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves: that states had the right to reject non-constitutional federal laws. This planted the seed of the idea that secession could be right in certain cases.
Opponents’ criticism of Thomas Jefferson- 1800 presidential election
- Atheist, a French-sympathizing radical, and the fatherd mulatto kids. Jefferson’s unconventional opinions about religion were a target. he edited the Gospels - taking out the miracles, divinity of Jesus. He argued that Jesus was a man, with good philosophical ideas but nothing more. He was also a Deist & fan of Thomas Paine
- (The Age of Reason, a highly controversial book against organized religion.) Despite this, Jefferson won.
How were slaves counted for taxation and for representation
in the House of Representatives there would be proportional representation. Southern states agreed only if slaves were counted in the population for representation, but not for taxation. Eventually it was agreed to count each slave as 3/5 of a man.
Constitutional Convention (1787) and proportional representation
Smaller states against it bc they feared voice would be unheard if representation was proportional to state population. compromise: in the House of Representatives there would be proportional representation, but not in the Senate
Because of the Revolution, exports had been reduced but imports remained high =trade deficit. poor people in debt, so when creditors began calling in the debts, a popular movement known as Shays’ Rebellion (Daniel Shays) erupted in 1786 to defend people in debt from the creditors. The militia quickly crushed them and a couple of rebels were hanged.
American Revolution (from when to when)
- cont congress 1774- wanted full freedom from England = militia vs soldiers.
- 2nd congress 1775- army George Wash = commander. July 4 1776 decl. of indep. signed
- thomas paine's common sense
- 1776- America gains military foothold
- 5000French join us in 1781
- 1783- king too broke, treaty ends war