Biology Chapter 1

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bendmar18
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Biology Chapter 1
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2014-09-22 18:47:45
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Biology Exam
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Biology Exam 1
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  1. What is a genotype?
    What is inherited
  2. What is inherited?
    Genotype
  3. What control how an organism looks?
    Phenotype
  4. What does a phenotype do?
    Controls how something looks.
  5. What is homeostasis?
    Regulation
  6. What is negative feedback?
    As product accumulates process slows down
  7. What is positive feedback loop?
    As product accumulates process is accelerated.
  8. What is the key to Evolution?
    Inheritance
  9. What is the key to Inheritance?
    DNA
  10. Order from smallest to largest of Atoms, Macromolecules, Molecules, Organelles, cells ? What are these?
    Atoms, Molecules, Macromolecules, Organelles, and cells. These are cellular levels.
  11. Order from smallest to larges: Organ, Tissue, Organ System, Organism? What are these?
    Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism. These are organismal level.
  12. Order from smallest to largest. Population, Ecosystem, Community, Species, Biosphere? What are these?
    Population, species, community, ecosystem, and biosphere. These are at the population level.
  13. What are emergent properties?
    Characteristics only apparent when whole is considered. Education would be an example because it includes several elements.
  14. What is reductionism?
    Reducing an entire system to its component parts to make it easier to study. So maybe study something smaller than something more complex. Example: study heart cells instead of whole heart.
  15. Why do biologists use reductionism?
    To understand the emergent properties of a system.
  16. Carbon cycles through what two agents?
    Biotic and abiotic.
  17. How does energy enter an ecosystem and how does it leave?
    It comes by light and exits by heat.
  18. How do organisms use energy?
    They transform it.
  19. What is the process by which energy comes to earth?
    Photosynthesis.
  20. What is the process by which energy leaves in the heat form?
    Cellular respiration
  21. What is the best thing in science and an annoying phrase?
    Structure meets function/.
  22. What is the smallest unit that can perform all functions of life?
    A cell.
  23. What is cell theory?
    All living things consist of cells and come from pre-existing cells.
  24. What do all cells have?
    Enclosed by a membrane and use DNA as their genetic information.
  25. What are prokaryotic cells?
    no membrane bound organelles. Small cells.
  26. What are eukaryotic cells?
    membrane bound organelles. Usually larger
  27. Which cells have a nucleus?
    Only eukaryotic
  28. What are genes?
    Sequences of DNA. It is the genetic information that is passed on from parents to offspring.
  29. Where is DNA found inside the nucleus?
    Chromosomes
  30. What do genes have the information to build?
    Proteins
  31. What four nucleotides are present in DNA?
    GCATS (Gay Cats)
  32. What is decent with modification?
    Organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors.
  33. What is deductive reasoning?
    Take something big (the general) and make it to something small.
  34. Inductive Reasoning
    Use specifics to determine the general

    *Every dog I see has hair, so this means that all dogs have hair.
  35. What do experiments do to hypotheses?
    They support them.
  36. What is geometric progression?
    Most fit species reproduce more.
  37. How does evolution occur?
    Natural selection. (Most fit organism reproduce the most) It selects for the changes in evolution
  38. When you compare the limbs of different species what is this called?
    comparative anatomy
  39. What is taxonomy?
    Its the naming and classification system that groups organisms according to similarity. Kind of like taxidermy.
  40. Which is the broadest in taxonomy?
    Domain
  41. ***What is the most specific in taxonomy?
    Species
  42. What are the classifications of taxonomy from Greatest to smallest or in other words from domain to species?
    Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.

    Dumb kids prefer candy over fancy green salad
  43. What is the genus for human?
    Homo
  44. What is the species for humans?
    H. Sapiens
  45. How many domains of life and how many kingdoms?
    • There are three domains (the trinity)
    • Five kingdoms (one for every weekday)
  46. How many cells do most prokaryotes have?
    one - single celled.
  47. What does cell theory describe?
    Organization of living things
  48. How does diversity happen?
    Evolutionary change
  49. in what type of states can living systems exist?
    Non-equilibrium. It can't be perfect
  50. End of Chapter 1 Slides
  51. What is a genome?
    entire DNA sequence of an organism.
  52. What is DNA?
    Genetic material of all organisms; composed of two complementary chains of nucleotides wound in a double helix.
  53. What is the Nucleus?
    In atoms, the central core, containing positively charged protons and (in all but hydrogen) electrically neutral neutrons; in eukaryotic cells, the membranous organelle that houses the chromosomal DNA; in the central nervous system, a cluster of nerve cell bodies.
  54. What is asexual reproduction?
    The process by which an individual inherits all of its chromosomes from a single parent, thus being genetically identical to that parent; cell division is by mitosis only.
  55. What is an emergent property?
    properties that come from how things interact with each other
  56. What is an organ?
    body structure composed of several different tissues grouped in a structural and functional unit.
  57. What is an ecosystem?
    A major interacting system that includes organisms and their nonliving environment.
  58. What is a protein?
    chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
  59. What are systematics?
    reconstruction and study of evolutionary relationships.
  60. What is a binomial?
    The scientific name of a species that consists of two parts, the genus name and the specific species name, for example, Apis mellifera.
  61. What is class?
    between phyla and orders
  62. What is Taxon?
    he science of classifying living things. By agreement among taxonomists, no two organisms can have the same name, and all names are expressed in Latin.
  63. What is Eukarya?
    A cell characterized by membrane-bounded organelles, most notably the nucleus, and one that possesses chromosomes whose DNA is associated with proteins; an organism composed of such cells.
  64. What is Protista?
  65. What is a gene pool?
    All the alleles present in a species.
  66. What is photosynthesis?
  67. What is a hypothesis?
  68. What is a control group?
  69. What are genomics?
    study of genomes as opposed to individual genes.
  70. What are organelles?
    Specialized part of a cell; literally, a small cytoplasmic organ.
  71. What is metabolism?
    sum of all chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism.
  72. What is sexual reproduction?
    The process of producing offspring through an alternation of fertilization (producing diploid cells) and meiotic reduction in chromosome number (producing haploid cells).
  73. What are atoms?
    The smallest unit of an element that contains all the characteristics of that element. Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
  74. What are Eubacteria?
    These bacteria are characterized by a rigid cell wall. They may either be motile or non-motile. If motile,
  75. What is Evolution?
    Genetic change in a population of organisms; in general, evolution leads to progressive change from simple to complex.
  76. What is Cellular Respiration?
    metabolic harvesting of energy by oxidation, ultimately dependent on molecular oxygen; carried out by the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
  77. What is deductive reasoning?
    The logical application of general principles to predict a specific result. In science, deductive reasoning is used to test the validity of general ideas.
  78. What is a prokaryote?
    A bacterium; a cell lacking a membrane-bounded nucleus or membrane-bounded organelles.
  79. What is Homeostasis?
    The maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiological environment in an organism; usually involves some form of feedback self-regulation.
  80. What is an Adaptation?
    A peculiarity of structure, physiology, or behavior that promotes the likelihood of an organism's survival and reproduction in a particular environment.
  81. What is a molecule?
    an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
  82. What is a Population?
    Any group of individuals, usually of a single species, occupying a given area at the same time.
  83. What is ecology?
    study of interactions of organisms with one another and with their physical environment.
  84. What is a Hormone?
    A molecule, usually a peptide or steroid, that is produced in one part of an organism and triggers a specific cellular reaction in target tissues and organs some distance away.
  85. What are archaea?
    Single celled prokaryotes
  86. What is natural selection?
    The differential reproduction of genotypes; caused by factors in the environment; leads to evolutionary change.
  87. What is a Heterotroph?
    An organism that cannot derive energy from photosynthesis or inorganic chemicals, and so must feed on other plants and animals, obtaining chemical energy by degrading their organic molecules
  88. What is Inductive Reasoning?
    The logical application of specific observations to make a generalization. In science, inductive reasoning is used to formulate testable hypotheses.
  89. What is Plasma Membrane?
    membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell; consists of a single phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
  90. What is Eukaryotic cell?
    A cell characterized by membrane-bounded organelles, most notably the nucleus, and one that possesses chromosomes whose DNA is associated with proteins; an organism composed of such cells.
  91. What are Cilia?
    an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell bod

    (Sensitive Hairs)
  92. What is reductionism?
    The gain of an electron by an atom, often with an associated proton.
  93. What is tissue?
    A group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit.
  94. What is a Community?
    All of the species inhabiting a common environment and interacting with one another.
  95. What is a Gene?
    The basic unit of heredity; a sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome that encodes a protein, tRNA, or rRNA molecule, or regulates the transcription of such a sequence.
  96. What is a mutation?
    A permanent change in a cell's DNA; includes changes in nucleotide sequence, alteration of gene position, gene loss or duplication, and insertion of foreign sequences.
  97. What is a Autotroph?
    An organism able to build all the complex organic molecules that it requires as its own food source, using only simple inorganic compounds.
  98. What are the characteristics of living things?
  99. List and describe from smallest to largest the hierarchical organization of living things?
    Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, population, species, biological community, ecosystem, and biosphere
  100. What is an emergent property?
    Cell, tissue, and organ are examples. The whole i greater than the composition of its parts.
  101. What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
    Deductive is the top down approach. It goes from the general to the specific. Inductive is the bottom up approach. It goes from the specific to the general.
  102. How does a hypothesis differ from a theory?
    Theory is a lack of knowledge. Hypothesis is an educated guess. Theories have been tested.
  103. What is Decent with Modification?
    Passing on traits to the offspring.
  104. What is evidence about evolution?
    Natural selection
  105. What is Cell Theory?
    All things come from cells. Cells are the basic structure.
  106. What is the function of DNA?
    Long term storage of information
  107. List the taxonomic categories?
    • Domain (least specific)
    •  Kingdom 
    • Phylum 
    • Class
    •  Order
    •  Family
    •  Genus 
    • Species (most specific)
  108. What is the binomial nomenclature of human beings?
    Homosapiens

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