Infection Control

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Infection Control
2014-09-15 21:25:41
infection control exposure
infection control powerpoint
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  1. what applies to all patients and protects us from blood and all bodily fluids, except sweat, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes?
    Standard Precaustions
  2. Handwashing, gloves, masks, eye protection, gowns, patient care equipment, environmental surfaces, and injury protection are all elements of what?
    Standard Precautions
  3. Patient must be considered potentially infectious, is number 1 of?
    ADA's 9 musts of infection control
  4. Gloves and gowns when contacting blood, saliva, or mucous membranes is #2 of?
    ADA's 9 musts of Infection Control
  5. Hands washed and re-gloved for next patient is #3 of?
    ADAs 9 musts of Infection control
  6. Surgical masks or chin-lengthed plastic face shields must be worn to protect from splatter is #4 of?
    ADAs 9 musts of Infection Control
  7. Eyewear worn to protect from splatter and aerosols is #5 of?
    ADAs 9 musts of Infection Control
  8. What is #6 of ADAs 9 musts of infection control regarding chemical disinfectants?
    Chemical disinfectants must be EPA registered as hospital disinfectants.
  9. what 3 species of bacteria do hospital disinfectants kill?
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Salmonella typhimurium
    • Psedomonas aeruginosa
  10. Disinfectants must be turberculocidal is #7 of/
    ADAs 9 musts of infection control
  11. Virucidal efficacy must include lipophillic and hydrophilic viruses is #8 of?
    ADAs 9 musts of infection control
  12. Critical instruments sterilized after each patient is #9 of ?
    ADAs 9 musts of Infection Control
  13. What organization protects the workers from physical, chemical, or infectious hazards and is a division of the US Dept of Labor?
  14. What agency ensures the safety and effectiveness of disinfectants and regulates the disposal of medical waste?
  15. What agency regulates manufacturing and labeling of medical devices, anti-microbial hand-washing agents and mouth rinses?
  16. Who requires a separate test to allow a disinfectant to be labeled tuberculocidal?
  17. what is visible organic debris typically associated with saliva and blood?
  18. what is an agent that kills or suppresses growth of microorganisms?
  19. what is a chemical agent that can be used safely on tissues externally to destroy or inhibit growth?
  20. what is the absence of infection or infectious materials or agents?
  21. why is infection control important in dentistry?
    patients and personnel can be exposed to pathogens. Contact with blood, oral and respiratory secretions, and contaminated equipment occurs.
  22. patients and personnel can be exposed to pathogens. Contact with blood, oral and respiratory secretions, and contaminated equipment occurs. this is why___is important
    infection control
  23. name 3 modes of transmission out of 4:
    • -direct contact of blood or body fluids with skin
    • -indirect contact w/ contaminated instrument or surface
    • -contact of droplets(spatter) by eyes, nose,
    • or mouth
    • -inhalation of airborne microbes
  24. list the chain of infection starting with pathogen
    • Pathogen
    • Reservoir
    • Mode
    • Entry
    • Susceptible Host
  25. list 3 factors that influence infection out of 5
    • -# of organisms
    • -duration of exposure
    • -virulence
    • -immune status
    • -physical/nutritional status of host
  26. the nature of a microorganism that determines its pathogenicity, degree of infectiousness, and conditions necessary for infection to occur is?
  27. what is the infection equation?
    • infection=  virulence x dose of pathogen
    •                 ________________________
    •                         host susceptibility
  28. what are the factors that alter normal defenses?
    • -abnormal conditions
    • -systemic diseases
    • -drug therapy
    • -prostheses and transplants
  29. Dust-borne organisms, aerosols, spatter cause what?
    air-bourne infections
  30. how is TB 9Mycobacterium tuberculosis) spread?
    droplet nuclei
  31. TB is transmitted by___
  32. incubation of TB is up to __ weeks
  33. when is TB maximally communicable
    just b4 diagnosis
  34. what are the symptoms of TB
    • low fever
    • loss of appetite
    • weight loss
    • lethargy
  35. what is the best way to prevent transmission of TB in dental setting?
    defer elective treatment and always check health history for TB

    • if P must be treated:
    • wear face mask
    • separate P from others
    • or refer to special facility
  36. Preprocedural oral hygiene measures, interruption of transmission, clean water, protection of patient and clinician are all steps to conrol___infection.
  37. what are all steps to conrol airborne infection?
    Preprocedural oral hygiene measures, interruption of transmission, clean water, protection of patient and clinician are all steps to conrol___infection.
  38. What are the personnel health elements of an infection control program? 5
    • -education and training
    • -immunizations
    • -exposure prevention and postexposure management
    • -medical condition management
    • -health records maintenance
  39. name 3 blood bourne pathogens
    • HBV
    • HCV
    • HIV
    • HSV
  40. True or false? Bloodborne pathogens are often carried by persons unaware and can produce chronic infection
  41. who is at the greatest risk for contracting a bloodborne pathogen; patient or DHCP
    DHCP; more frequently exposed
  42. What are the 3 factors influencing occupational risk of contracting a bloodborne virus infection?
    • -prevelance/frequency of infected Ps
    • -risk after exposure (virulence=high for HBV)
    • -type/frequency of blood contact
    •  (how often exposed-lots:working with sharp instruments/needles-yes)
  43. For HBV if the HBeAg is + along with the HBsAg+ then what is the risk based on serological evidence in percentage after needlestick?
  44. If the serological evidence is 23-37% for risk of transmitting HBV after needlestick, which Ags are + and/or -?
    • HBeAg-
    • HBsAg+
  45. What is the percentage risk after needlestick of contracting HIV?
  46. What is the percentage risk after needlestick of contracting HCV?
  47. what are 4 risk factors for HIV transmission percutaneous?
    • -deep injury
    • -visible blood on device
    • -needle placed in artery or vein
    • -P w/ terminal illness
  48. What type of control reduces exposure by removing, eliminating, or isolating hazard frequently technology based such as self-sheathing needles?
    Engineering controls
  49. What type of control reduces the risk of blood exposure by changing the way a task is performed such as: using instruments to retract, one-handed needle re-capping, not passing unsheathed needle to coworker?
    Work Practice Controls
  50. When policies, procedures and enforcement measures are used to prevent exposure, often outranking engineering controls in the case of TB infection, these are?
    Administrative Controls
  51. Having clear policies and procedures, educating personnel and making available rapid access to clinical care, post-exposure prohylaxis(PEP), and testing of source Ps are all part of ____ - ___management program.
  52. What is the most common mode of pathogen transmission?
  53. What will reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance and prevent health care associated infections?
    hand washing
  54. what do you do when your hands are visibly soiled?
    wash them
  55. What do you do after touching contaminated objects w/ bare hands?
    wash them
  56. what do you do b4 donning gloves and after taking them off?
    wash hands
  57. what do you do b4 leaving the treatment room?
    wash hands
  58. What contains an antiseptic agent?
    antiseptic handwash
  59. what are the benefits of alcohol based rubs? 3
    • -rapid
    • -more accessible
    • -improved skin condition
  60. what are the limitations of using an alcohol-based rub?
    • -visibly soiled, can not use
    • -must store away from high temps or flames
  61. Using hand lotion to prevent skin dryness, not using mineral oils or petroleum to avoid glove failure, keeping nails short, and no hand jewelry are all hand hygiene considerations.
  62. Immunizations, PPE, hygiene, hand care, and record keeping are all ____ ____ of the dental team.
    personal protection
  63. immunizations and periodic testing:
    • get basic scheduled vaccinations,
    • booster and reimmunize,
    • annual recommended periodic testing and medical consultation
  64. PPE=  (6)
    • -gloves
    • -eyewear
    • -attire (gown, closed toe shoes)
    • -mask
    • -CDC recommendations
    • -HAIR
  65. what is a MAJOR component of Standard Precautions?
  66. what should you do if your face shield becomes visibly soiled?
    clean AND disinfect
  67. what are the 4 components of mask efficiency?
    • -filtration
    • -comfort
    • -moisture absorption
    • -FIT
  68. what minimizes acquiring infections from Ps, prevents transmission to Ps, and reduces transmission from P to P?
  69. Wear gloves when contact with __, ___, ___ ___ is possible.
    blood, saliva, mucous membranes
  70. list 5 factors of glove integrity:
    • -torn, cut, punctured
    • -length of time worn
    • -size
    • -agents used on hands
    • -jewelry
  71. Type _ hypersensitivity causes eye, nose, skin reactions to possible respiratory distress, shock, or death from exposure to ___.
    • I
    • latex
  72. ____ ____ ____ is not an allergy and causes dry, itchy, irritated areas.
    Irritant contact dermatitis
  73. Is allergic contact dermatitis an allergy?
  74. Allergic contact dermatitis is type _ delayed hypersensitivity and is an ___ to chemicals in gloves.
    • IV
    • allergy
  75. what penetrates mucous membranes, or contacts bone, bloodstream and requires heat sterilization b/w uses?
    critical items
  76. what are surgical instruments, scalpel blades, scalers, calculus removal instruments, and burs considered to be?
    critical materials
  77. what contacts mucous membranes but do NOT penetrate soft tissue and need to be heat sterilized or high-level disinfected?
    semi-critical instruments
  78. ___ critical materials such as mirrors, hand-pieces and retractors will come in contact with oral fluids but will NOT penetrate.
  79. what contacts intact skin and can be cleaned and disinfected using a low to intermediate disinfectant?
    non-critical instruments and devices
  80. what are some examples of non-critical items?
    w-ray heads, face bows, pulse oximeter, bld pressure cuff, safety glasses
  81. what is the mechanical and chemical cleaning of a surface or object to remove dust and dirt...the cleaning phase?
  82. What kills all forms of life including spores?
  83. What destroys pathogenic microorganisms but not spores and is usually chemical?
  84. What REDUCES contamination to a safe level?
  85. Name 4 types of disinfectants:
    • -Glutaraldehydes; damage surfaces
    • -Iodophors; stain
    • -Chlorines; 1:10 
    • -Phenols; surface use only
    • (synthetic phenolics in soaps and mouthwash)
  86. Disinfection is dependent on correct ___ and ___ of exposure.
    • concentration
    • length
  87. Disinfectants must be _ _ _ registered and always check manufactures instructions for use.
  88. Action of disinfectant solution is altered by ___ and ___ matter.
    • dilution
    • foreign
  89. What causes the destruction of all microorganisms including spores and is the highest level of control?