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Confrontation between officers and Congress -Yorktown
- officers of Continental Army upset -promise of a pension at end of the war never formalized. Afraid Congress forget this promise, officers asked for bonus: 5 years of full pay instead of pension. Congress refused, some officers met to consider a military coup. Washington convinced
- them not to use force, and Congress finally agreed to the bonus. In 1783 Washington resigned.
Reasons for the American Revolution
- 7 Years War put Britain in major debt. Nearly bankrupt, the British government had to raise $, decided to raise taxes
- 1764 the Sugar Act, 1765 the Stamp ActTownshend Revenue Acts, Boston Massacre, quartering acts, intolerable acts (1774 in response to tea party in 73)
Declaration of Independence -Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine, an English radical who had moved to Philadelphia, wrote Common Sense, a pamphlet arguing that the British system was based on aristocracy and monarchy and that Americans should reject both. This was perhaps the single most important piece of writing during revolution (it sold more than 100 thousand copies). It became a sort of manifesto of the American Revolution.
% of loyalists among settlers during Revolution -War during 1776
France’ role during Revolution -Who was in charge of the army during Revolution
- 5000 French troops arrived to help the Americans and joined Washington in 1781
- French and Americans laid siege until the British surrendered the town
How first fighting of the Revolution began
King George was convinced only force would bring the colonials back in line, so in April 1775, orders were passed down to seize the weapons of the Massachusetts militia. 700 British soldiers marched to the town of Concord where the weapons and ammunition were stocked but the militia intercepted them on the way. British soldiers fired on the militia killing 8, but during their retreat back to Boston they were attacked repeatedly by the militia and ended up losing 73 of their own.
Continental Congress’ position about war with England in 1774
The colonial assemblies sent representatives to Philadelphia. Most wanted to avoid war but wished to pressure England through economic sanctions. Patrick Henry, however, argued that the time had come for full freedom from England.
Intolerable Acts -
Intolerable Acts- 1774. prohibited the loading/unloading ships in Boston until city paid the East Indian Company, established that Colonial assemblies were to be appointed by the king and not by local elections, and prohibited town meetings without the governor’s approval
Stamp Act and boycott
- 1765 the Stamp Act (tax on the purchase of special paper required for newspapers, legal documents, licenses, insurance policies, etc.) These measures greatly upset the colonists who felt unfairly taxed by a government in which they had no representation
- emonstrations occasionally grew violent. A series of economic boycotts of British products pushed the government of England to repeal the Stamp Act. However, it reasserted its right to make any law they want in the colonies.
7 Years War (participants, from when to when, American Indian role, relationship with Pontiac’s War)
- competition between England and France in the North East finally came to a major showdown in the 1750s.
- France was defeated and signed a peace treaty that made no provisions for their Indian allies. England remained as the # 1 European power in N. America.
- buffer zone btwn fr and eng disputed english lose battle
- 1763 Pontiac’s War: named after ottowa chief ended:
- british passed the Royal Proclamation, a document that stated that all the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains belonged to the Indians.
Great Awakening - Enlightenment
- Enlightenment - 1600s science- wars fought as religion lost ground and logic took over
- great awakening- popular religious movement ENglish colonies 1700s to relax the goddamn religious analness
- french colonization mostly for fur
- Metis, the children of French fathers and Indian mothers
King Philip’s War
1674 conflict pit the Puritans against the Wampanoag and allied tribes. The Wampanoag are the tribe that supposedly held the first “Thanksgiving” with the Puritans. Metacomet, nicknamed King Philip by the Puritans, was the Wampanoag leader who led his people to war in order to protect their lands. Despite heavy losses, the Purtians were eventually able to kill Metacomet and win the war in 1676.
bacon rebellion (Jamestown)
- In Virginia, in 1675-76
- very poor settlers wanna push westward and conquer more Indian lands. government of Jamestown was not very supportive of this goal pushed them to rebel under the leadership of Nathaniel Bacon. The rebellion began with the killing of a group of local Natives and an attack on Jamestown itself. classic example of conflict between those who were more established (and therefore less inclined to spend $ in campaigns to push westward) and the very poor (who saw stealing Indian land as their only option for social mobility). Bacon died (of natural causes) and the Rebellion came to an end, but this class conflict over policy toward Indian lands remains as a recurrent issue in American history.
One exception to the hostile relations between English and Natives is the story of the Quakers. Members of a religious minority that emphasized a more peaceful interpretation of Christianity, for decades the Quakers tried to build good relations with local Native tribes around Philadelphia.