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  1. what are psychrophiles or (cryophiles)?
    organisms with low temperature optima, generally between 0 degrees celsius and 20 degrees celsius
  2. what are mesophiles?
    organisms that prefer mid-range temperatures, 20 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius
  3. what are thermophiles?
    have high temperature optima >40 degrees Celsius.
  4. what are cardinal temperatures?
    (minimum, optimum, and maximum growth temperatures) define the growth range of an organism.
  5. minimum growth temperature?
    the organism can't grow below this temperature.
  6. optimum growth temperature?
    temperature at which it grows best/most rapidly.
  7. maximum growth temperature?
    temperature above which growth does not occur.
  8. what is pH?
    a measure of acidity or alkalinity.
  9. what is an acidophile?
    Organisms preferring low pH environments.
  10. what are stenothermal organisms?
    organisms with a narrow temperature range.
  11. what are eurythermal organisms?
    organisms with a wide temperature range.
  12. what are direct methods to measure growth of bacteria?
    direct microscope counts, standard plate counts, filtration, and the most probable number technique.
  13. what are indirect methods to measure growth of bacteria?
    measurement of metabolic activity(O2 consumption), dry weight, or turbidity(cloudiness of a suspension).
  14. list several ways in which microbes affect our lives.
    • cause disease and infections.
    • help with digestion and synthesize vitamins B AND K in the intestines. 
    • Used to clean up pollutants and in agriculture insect pest control
  15. list several beneficial activities of microorganisms.
    • (1) Recycling vital elements
    • (2) Sewage treatment: using microbes to recycle water 
    • (3) Bioremediation: using microbes to clean up pollutants 
    • (4) Insect pest control by microorganisms
  16. _____ is another term for biosynthesis
  17. Catabolism is a form of metabolism in which _________ molecules are converted into __________ molecules.
    large, small
  18. An enzyme _______ the activation energy required for a chemical reaction.
  19. An enzyme
    is heat and pH labile
  20. An apoenzyme is where the _________ is located
    active site
  21. Many coenzymes are
  22. To digest cellulose in its environment, a fungus produces a/an
  23. In negative feedback control of enzymes, a build-up in the amount of _____ decreases the activity in the enzyme.
  24. Energy in biological systems is primarily
  25. Energy is carried from catabolic to anabolic reactions in the form of __________
    high-energy ATP bonds
  26. Exergonic reactions
    release potential energy
  27. A reduced compound is
  28. Most oxidation reactions in microbial bioenergetics involve the
    removal of electrons and hydrogens
  29. Products of glycolysis are
  30. Fermentation of a glucose molecule gives off a net number of ATPs.
  31. Complete oxidation of glucose in aerobic respiration yields a net output of ATP.
  32. The compound that enters the TCA cycle from glycolysis is
    pyruvic acid
  33. The FADH2 formed during the TCA cycle enters the electron transport system at which site?
    coenzyme Q
  34. ATP synthase complexes can generate _______a ATPs for each NADH that enters electron transport.
  35. what are the five types of microorganisms?
    Bacteria, Archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, Viruses, and Helminths(worms)
  36. binomial nomenclature: the genus is always?
    both underlined and genus is capitalized.
  37. binomial nomenclature: species?
    both are italicized, but the species is lower cased.
  38. two cell types, what are they?
    Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells
  39. describe Eukaryotic cells
    have a true nucleus(DNA is enclosed inside a membrane) i.e.; animals, plants, fungi, and protozoa.
  40. describe prokaryotic cells
    lack a true nucleus(DNA not enclosed in nuclear membrane) i.e.; bacteria and Archaea.
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