Chemistry Unit 2
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Chemistry Unit 2
chemistry unit 2 test
Hydrogen symbol and charge
Lithium symbol and charge
Sodium symbol and charge
Potassium symbol and charge
Rubidium symbol and charge
Cesium symbol and charge
Silver symbol and charge
Magnesium symbol and charge
Calcium symbol and charge
Strontium symbol and charge
Barium symbol and charge
Zinc symbol and charge
Iron (II) symbol and charge
Iron (III) symbol and charge
Aluminum symbol and charge
Ammonium symbol and charge
Flouride symbol and charge
Chloride symbol and charge
Bromide symbol and charge
Iodide symbol and charge
Oxide symbol and charge
Sulfide symbol and charge
Nitride symbol and charge
Phosphide symbol and charge
Hydroxide symbol and charge
Cyanide symbol and charge
Nitrate symbol and charge
Acetate symbol and charge
Sulfate symbol and charge
Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) symbol and charge
Carbonate symbol and charge
Hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) symbol and charge
Phosphate symbol and charge
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass (or matter) is not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. The total mass of all products equals the total mass of all reactants.
Law of Constant Composition
Compounds consist of elements combined in definite proportions by mass
A proton has a mass of about...
A neutron has a mass of about...
An electron has a mass of about...
An atom is electrically neutral because...
the number of protons = the number of electrons
Where is the mass number located on an isotopic symbol?
superscript on top
Where is the atomic number located on the isotopic symbol?
subscript lower number
Groups of bonded atoms with a net charge
Ions derived from single atoms
how electrons are distributed in the cloud
what is equation for the speed of light?
wavelength X frequency = C
How are frequency and wavelength related?
short wavelength-----high frequency
long wavelength------low frequency
What units can wavelength have?
What units can frequency have?
what is the equation for energy of light?
E= h x frequency
only certain discrete values are allowed
what is the DeBroglie equation? (for wave-particle duality)
h= plank's constant
a branch of physics that deals with light and subatomic particles that exhibit wave-particle duality
what are the three quantum numbers used to describe the size, energy, shape, and orientation of orbitals
1- principal quantum number (
2- angular momentum quantum number (
3- magnetic quantum number (m
principal quantum number
the quantum number most directly related to the size. Associated with shells of electrons.
angular momentum quantum number
aka secondary quantum number or azimuthal quantum number
related to the shape of the orbital's electron density map (electron cloud)
has a range of 0 up to n-1
associated with a subshell
What shape does an orbital have when l=0?
known as the s orbital
what is a node?
regions of zero electron density within an s orbital.
what shape does an orbital have when l = 1?
known as the p orbital
what shape does an orbital have when l = 2?
can be 2 different shapes like a flat four leaf clover or a baby pacifier
known as the d orbital
what kind of orbital is made when l = 3?
magnetic quantum number
related to how an orbital is aligned in 3-dimensional space
ranges from -l to l
When l=1, what values can m
-1, 0, 1
how many orbitals does an s subshell have?
how many orbitals does a p subshell have?
When l=2, what values can m
-2, -1, 0, 1, or 2
how many orbitals does a d subshell have?
When l=3 what values can m
-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, or 3
how many orbitals does an f subshell have?
spin quantum number
can be either +1/2 or - 1/2
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in an atom can have the same values for all 4 quantum numbers
Which two elements differ from the normal expectations of electron configuration?
Chromium and Copper
What is the octet rule?
Atoms tend to lose, gain, or share valence electrons in order to be left with or to reach that ns
Where do metals lose electrons first?
the highest numbered shell
Ionization energy (IE)
the energy required to remove an electron from a gas phase atom
X(g) + energy = X
(g) + e
Where on the periodic table does the IE increase?
From left to right
Electron affinity (EA)
the energy change occurring when an electron is added to a gas phase atom
X(g) + e
(g) + energy
Where on the periodic table does EA increase?
As you move to the right and up
Where on the periodic table does metallic character increase?
As you move down and left
Within a row, the lower number of electrons...
the bigger the atomic size
Cations are what size in comparison to their parent atom?
Anions are what size in comparison to their parent atom?
A set of ions and atoms that all have the same number of electrons (and therefore the same electron configuration)
What is the trend for an isoelectronic series?
The higher the atomic number, the smaller the ion or atom is
What metals do not need to have roman numeral charges in parentheses?
Aluminum, Zinc, Silver, and Cadmium
What suffix do monatomic anions have?
group of atoms with an overall net ionic charge
have special names
What kind of charge do ionic compounds have?
zero net charge
total positive charge = total negative charge
simplest combination of ions that gives a charge balance in an ionic compound
When does criss-crossing not work when writing formulas from names?
When you have two even charges
What is the name and formula of table salt?
What is the name and formula of bleach?
What is the name and formula for baking soda?