Chemistry Unit 2

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Chemistry Unit 2
2014-09-18 00:54:02

chemistry unit 2 test
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  1. Hydrogen symbol and charge
  2. Lithium symbol and charge
  3. Sodium symbol and charge
  4. Potassium symbol and charge
  5. Rubidium symbol and charge
  6. Cesium symbol and charge
  7. Silver symbol and charge
  8. Magnesium symbol and charge
  9. Calcium symbol and charge
  10. Strontium symbol and charge
  11. Barium symbol and charge
  12. Zinc symbol and charge
  13. Iron (II) symbol and charge
  14. Iron (III) symbol and charge
  15. Aluminum symbol and charge
  16. Ammonium symbol and charge
  17. Flouride symbol and charge
  18. Chloride symbol and charge
  19. Bromide symbol and charge
  20. Iodide symbol and charge
  21. Oxide symbol and charge
  22. Sulfide symbol and charge
  23. Nitride symbol and charge
  24. Phosphide symbol and charge
  25. Hydroxide symbol and charge
  26. Cyanide symbol and charge
  27. Nitrate symbol and charge
  28. Acetate symbol and charge
  29. Sulfate symbol and charge
  30. Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) symbol and charge
  31. Carbonate symbol and charge
  32. Hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) symbol and charge
  33. Phosphate symbol and charge
  34. Law of Conservation of Mass
    Mass (or matter) is not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. The total mass of all products equals the total mass of all reactants.
  35. Law of Constant Composition
    Compounds consist of elements combined in definite proportions by mass
  36. A proton has a mass of about...
    1.007 amu
  37. A neutron has a mass of about...
    1.008 amu
  38. An electron has a mass of about...
    0.000549 amu
  39. An atom is electrically neutral because...
    the number of protons = the number of electrons
  40. Where is the mass number located on an isotopic symbol?
    superscript on top
  41. Where is the atomic number located on the isotopic symbol?
    subscript lower number
  42. Polyatomic ions
    Groups of bonded atoms with a net charge
  43. Monatomic ions
    Ions derived from single atoms
  44. cation
    positive ion
  45. anion
    negative ion
  46. electron configuration
    how electrons are distributed in the cloud
  47. what is equation for the speed of light?
    wavelength X frequency = C
  48. How are frequency and wavelength related?
    • Inversely. 
    • short wavelength-----high frequency
    • long wavelength------low frequency
  49. What units can wavelength have?
    • m
    • cm
    • micrometers
    • nm
    • Angstroms
  50. What units can frequency have?
    • s-1
    • Hz
    • kHz
    • MHz
  51. what is the equation for energy of light?
    • E= h x frequency
    • h=plank's constant
  52. quantized
    only certain discrete values are allowed
  53. what is the DeBroglie equation? (for wave-particle duality)
    • wavelength = 
    • h= plank's constant
  54. quantum mechanics
    a branch of physics that deals with light and subatomic particles that exhibit wave-particle duality
  55. what are the three quantum numbers used to describe the size, energy, shape, and orientation of orbitals
    • 1- principal quantum number (n)
    • 2- angular momentum quantum number (l)
    • 3- magnetic quantum number (ml)
  56. principal quantum number
    • n
    • the quantum number most directly related to the size. Associated with shells of electrons.
  57. angular momentum quantum number
    • l
    • aka secondary quantum number or azimuthal quantum number
    • related to the shape of the orbital's electron density map (electron cloud)
    • has a range of 0 up to n-1
    • associated with a subshell
  58. What shape does an orbital have when l=0?
    • Spherical
    • known as the s orbital
  59. what is a node?
    regions of zero electron density within an s orbital.
  60. what shape does an orbital have when l = 1?
    • dumbell
    • known as the p orbital
  61. what shape does an orbital have when l = 2?
    • It's complicated
    • can be 2 different shapes like a flat four leaf clover or a baby pacifier
    • known as the d orbital
  62. what kind of orbital is made when l = 3?
    f orbital
  63. magnetic quantum number
    • ml
    • related to how an orbital is aligned in 3-dimensional space
    • ranges from -l to l
  64. When l=1, what values can mhave?
    -1, 0, 1
  65. how many orbitals does an s subshell have?
  66. how many orbitals does a p subshell have?
  67. When l=2, what values can mhave?
    -2, -1, 0, 1, or 2
  68. how many orbitals does a d subshell have?
  69. When l=3 what values can mhave?
    -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, or 3
  70. how many orbitals does an f subshell have?
  71. ms
    • spin quantum number
    • can be either +1/2 or - 1/2
  72. Pauli exclusion principle
    no two electrons in an atom can have the same values for all 4 quantum numbers
  73. Which two elements differ from the normal expectations of electron configuration?
    Chromium and Copper
  74. What is the octet rule?
    Atoms tend to lose, gain, or share valence electrons in order to be left with or to reach that ns2p6 configuration
  75. Where do metals lose electrons first?
    the highest numbered shell
  76. Ionization energy (IE)
    • the energy required to remove an electron from a gas phase atom
    • X(g) + energy = X+(g) + e
  77. Where on the periodic table does the IE increase?
    From left to right
  78. Electron affinity (EA)
    • the energy change occurring when an electron is added to a gas phase atom
    • X(g) + e- = X-(g) + energy
  79. Where on the periodic table does EA increase?
    As you move to the right and up
  80. Where on the periodic table does metallic character increase?
    As you move down and left
  81. Within a row, the lower number of electrons...
    the bigger the atomic size
  82. Cations are what size in comparison to their parent atom?
  83. Anions are what size in comparison to their parent atom?
  84. Isoelectronic series
    A set of ions and atoms that all have the same number of electrons (and therefore the same electron configuration)
  85. What is the trend for an isoelectronic series?
    The higher the atomic number, the smaller the ion or atom is
  86. What metals do not need to have roman numeral charges in parentheses?
    Aluminum, Zinc, Silver, and Cadmium
  87. What suffix do monatomic anions have?
  88. Polyatomic ions
    • group of atoms with an overall net ionic charge
    • have special names
  89. What kind of charge do ionic compounds have?
    • zero net charge
    • total positive charge = total negative charge
  90. Formula unit
    simplest combination of ions that gives a charge balance in an ionic compound
  91. When does criss-crossing not work when writing formulas from names?
    When you have two even charges
  92. What is the name and formula of table salt?
    • sodium chloride
    • NaCl
  93. What is the name and formula of bleach?
    • sodium hypochlorite
    • NaClO
  94. What is the name and formula for baking soda?
    • sodium bicarbonate
    • NaHCO3