Grade 9 Ecology Chapter 1

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Grade 9 Ecology Chapter 1
2014-09-16 18:48:00
Chapter 1 Glossary terms
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  1. Ecosystem
    • -All the interacting parts of a biological community and it's environment
    • -eg: Forest, Pond, Swamp, Jungle, Rain Forest, Tundra, Sea, Arctic
  2. Sustainable ecosystem
    • An ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms
    • eg: A termite eats a tree but an acorn falls and grows into a new tree. In other words if a person falls someone helps them up.
  3. Biotic
    • The living parts of an ecosystem
    • eg: Trees, grass, Deer, Wolves, Flowers
  4. Abiotic
    • The non-living parts of an ecosystem
    • eg: Stones, water, soil, sunlight, air
  5. Lithosphere
    • The hard part of Earth's surface
    • eg: rocks, sedement, soil, ground
  6. Hydrosphere
    • All the water found on Earth, including lakes, oceans, and ground water
    • eg: Lakes, oceans, ground water, streams, ponds, rivers
  7. Atmosphere
    • The layer of gases above Earth's surface
    • eg: Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon
  8. Biosphere
    • The regions of Earth where living organisms exist
    • eg: Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere
  9. Nutrient
    • A chemical that is essential to living things and is cycled through ecosystems
    • eg: glucose
  10. Eutrophication
    • A process in which nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, leading to an increase in the populations of primary producers
    • eg: Phosphorus is dumped in a lake resulting in an algae bloom and it off sets the ecosystem and kills the plants and the animals that feed on those plants etc.
  11. Photosynthesis
    • A process that changes solar energy into chemical energy
    • eg: Plants use photosynthesis to create glucose for all the cosumers
  12. Trophic level
    • A category of organisms that is defined by how the organisms gain their energy.
    • eg: Primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers
  13. Biomass
    • The total mass of living organisms in a defined group or area
    • eg: A stick is filled with biomass that contains energy from the sun
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    • A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from on trophic level to the next higher trophic level.
    • eg: Grass is eaten by jackrabbit, the jackrabbit will only get the amount the trophic efficiency percentage of the energy.
  15. Bioaccumulation
    A process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they are eliminated

    Note: In one organism where as biomagnification is in several
  16. Biomagnification
    Is the increase in the concentration of a toxin as it moves from one trophic level to the next.

    Note: Takes place between several organisms
  17. Cellular respiration
    A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen
  18. Fermentation
    A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen
  19. Greenhouse Gasses
    Atmospheric gases that prevent heat from leaving the atmosphere, thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere
  20. Greenhouse Effect
    The warming of Earth as a result of greenhouse gases, which trap some of the energy that would otherwise leave Earth
  21. Acid Precipitation
    Rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic due to gases in the atmosphere that react with water to form acids.