ENTOM 305- Animal Health Entomology (Respiratory & Circulatory System)

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Anonymous
ID:
283319
Filename:
ENTOM 305- Animal Health Entomology (Respiratory & Circulatory System)
Updated:
2014-09-17 00:44:07
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Entomology
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Description:
Animal Health Entomology Respiratory & Circulatory System
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  1. Respiratory System
    • - system of air ducts running into and through insect body
    • - major air ducts are trachea that open to the outside via openings called spiracles
    • - intake, transport & utilization of oxygen
    • - removal of carbon dioxide
  2. Insect Tracheal System
    - major frame of the tracheal network consists of a pair of lateral longitudinal tracheal trunk running close to the spiracles
  3. Spiracle
    • - segmental pairs of spiracles are the gates for external opening of tracheal system
    • - function: discontinuous gas exchange & protection
    • - one muscle metathoracic
  4. Dorsal vessel & vertical nerve cord location
    • - dorsal vessel on top
    • - ventral nerve cord on bottom
  5. Fine structure of trachea
    • - outside in: epidermal cell, procuticle, epicuticle, taenidium
  6. Active Ventilation for Respiration Occurs in Insects
    • 1.) telescopic movement of body (abdomen)
    • 2.) discontinuous directional air flow
    • 3.) primary mode is diffusion of gases across membranes; movement from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
    • 4.) abdominal movement may lead changes in trachea volume by telescopic movements
  7. Hydrophobic Hairs
    • - hydrophobic hairs maintain siphon opened to air then close underwater
    • - mosquito larva breathing through siphon (snorkel)
  8. Plastron Respiration
    • - specialized structure to hold a thin film of air on the outside of the body
    • - a densely arrayed hydrophobic hair pile
  9. Circulatory System
    • - open system consisting of:
    •    - dorsal vessel- pulsatile, elongate tube extending length of the body
    •    - plus aorta & heart
    • - organ specialized for circulations in open circulatory system
  10. Composition of Hemolymph
    • 1.) Inorganic ions: chloride, phosphate, sodium, potassium, magnesium
    • 2.) Organic molecules: trehalose, glucose, diacylglycerol
    • 3.) Proteins
    • 4.) Hemocytes
    • 5.) Water
  11. Hemocytes
    • - Prohemocyte, plasmtocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, adipohemocyte, oenocytoid, coagulocyte
    • - large variations occur depending on insects
  12. Functions of Hemolymph
    • 1.) immune systems & wound healing
    • 2.) transport & storage of nutrients
    • 3.) reservoir of fluid (water), nutrition & enzymes
    • 4.) transport hormones
    • 5.) hydraulic support
    • 6.) heat distribution

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