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- -A group or biological community with interacting parts (organisms) and their physical environment (biotic-abiotic)
- -E.g. forest, pond, arctic, sea, tundra, rain forest
- -An ecosystem that can withstand pressure and flourish for many generations without human aid, while also giving support to a variety of organisms.
- -E.g. A non polluted forest with a thriving food chain
- -The living or recently living parts of an ecosystem, which consists of producers (plants) and consumers (animals,microorganisms, and fungi)
- -E.g. plants,animals,fungi,bacteria and protists
- -The non-living parts of the ecosystem that organisms need to survive.
- -E.g. water, air (oxygen), light, chemical nutrients, soil
- -The rigid, hard part of the Earth's surface; includes rock and soil
- -The liquid part of the Earth's surface, all of the water on the surface
- -This includes salt water oceans, freshwater lakes, rivers and lakes
- -The layer of gases above the Earth's surface
- -This includes air, (oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide)
- -The regions of the surface, living part of Earth's surface with air, water and occupied by living organisms
- -E.g. Any area which consists of these attributes
- -A substance which lets life nourish and is essential for growth and maintenance of life
- -E.g. Protein, vitamins and minerals
- -The process of adding nitrogen or phosphorus to an ecosystem that pushes it beyond the normal nutrient cycle which it can no longer sustain
- -E.g too much fertilizer causes the algae boom process
- -The process of plants and other organisms converting solar energy to chemical energy, to be used as "food" and also create oxygen.
- -Word Equation
- Carbon Dioxide + Water (in the presence of light)/(chlorophyll is needed) glucose + oxygen
- -Categories of organisms defined by how the organisms gain energy, these organisms share the same function in the food chain
- -E.g Primary producers>primary consumers>secondary consumers>tertiary consumers
- -The total mass of living organisms in a given group or area
-A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level.
- -A process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they are eliminated.
- -E.g DDT, PCB's)
- -Bioaccumulation of toxins from human-made pollution can be destructive to a species
- -The increase of the concentration of a toxin as it moves from one trophic level to the next
- -E.g. a large fish would have a larger concentration of toxins because it eats more smaller fish which already ingested toxins
- -A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates in the presence of oxygen
- -Converts biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate
-A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen which typically involve effervescence and the giving off of heat
- -A gas that is responsible and contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation
- -E.g. Carbon Dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide
- -The trapping of the sun's warmth in the planet's lower atmosphere, which is caused by greenhouse gases that let the sunlight to go through but absorb the heat as well.
-Acid rain is a form of precipitation that is more acidic than clean rain (pH 5.6) caused by fossil fuels burning which causes gases that combine with water into sulfuric and nitric acid.