Science Glossary Terms (Chapter 1)

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  1. Ecosystem
    • -A group or biological community with interacting parts (organisms) and their physical environment (biotic-abiotic)
    • -E.g. forest, pond, arctic, sea, tundra, rain forest
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  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    • -An ecosystem that can withstand pressure and flourish for many generations without human aid, while also giving support to a variety of organisms. 
    • -E.g. A non polluted forest with a thriving food chain
  3. Biotic
    • -The living or recently living parts of an ecosystem, which consists of producers (plants) and consumers (animals,microorganisms, and fungi)
    • -E.g. plants,animals,fungi,bacteria and protists
  4. Abiotic
    • -The non-living parts of the ecosystem that organisms need to survive. 
    • -E.g. water, air (oxygen), light, chemical nutrients, soil
  5. Lithosphere
    • -The rigid, hard part of the Earth's surface; includes rock and soil
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  6. Hydrosphere
    • -The liquid part of the Earth's surface, all of the water on the surface
    • -This includes salt water oceans, freshwater lakes, rivers and lakes

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  7. Atmosphere
    • -The layer of gases above the Earth's surface
    • -This includes air, (oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide)
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  8. Biosphere
    • -The regions of the surface, living part of Earth's surface with air, water and occupied by living organisms 
    • -E.g. Any area which consists of these attributes
  9. Nutrients
    • -A substance which lets life nourish and is essential for growth and maintenance of life
    • -E.g. Protein, vitamins and minerals
  10. Eutrophication
    • -The process of adding nitrogen or phosphorus to an ecosystem that pushes it beyond the normal nutrient cycle which it can no longer sustain
    • -E.g too much fertilizer causes the algae boom process
  11. Photosynthesis
    • -The process of plants and other organisms converting solar energy to chemical energy, to be used as "food" and also create oxygen.
    • -Word Equation
    • Carbon Dioxide + Water (in the presence of light)/(chlorophyll is needed) glucose + oxygen
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  12. Trophic Level
    • -Categories of organisms defined by how the organisms gain energy, these organisms share the same function in the food chain
    • -E.g Primary producers>primary consumers>secondary consumers>tertiary consumers
  13. Biomass
    • -The total mass of living organisms in a given group or area
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  14. Trophic Efficiency
    -A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level.Image Upload
  15. Bioaccumulation
    • -A process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they are eliminated.
    • -E.g DDT, PCB's)
    • -Bioaccumulation of toxins from human-made pollution can be destructive to a species
  16. Biomagnification
    • -The increase of the concentration of a toxin as it moves from one trophic level to the next
    • -E.g. a large fish would have a larger concentration of toxins because it eats more smaller fish which already ingested toxins
  17. Cellular Respiration
    • -A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates in the presence of oxygen
    • -Converts biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate
  18. Fermentation
    -A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen which typically involve effervescence and the giving off of heat
  19. Greenhouse Gases
    • -A gas that is responsible and contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation
    • -E.g. Carbon Dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide
  20. Greenhouse Effect
    • -The trapping of the sun's warmth in the planet's lower atmosphere, which is caused by greenhouse gases that let the sunlight to go through but absorb the heat as well. 
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  21. Acid precipitation
    -Acid rain is a form of precipitation that is more acidic than clean rain (pH 5.6) caused by fossil fuels burning which causes gases that combine with water into sulfuric and nitric acid.
Author:
Miguel_Balbon
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Card Set:
Science Glossary Terms (Chapter 1)
Updated:
2014-09-18 11:18:20
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Chapter 1 Glossary term flashcards.
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