micro chapt 3 and 4

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Hbottorff
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micro chapt 3 and 4
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2014-09-17 11:25:51
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3 AND 4
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  1. The labratory sythesis of urea disproved what idea
    organic chemicals could only come from living organisms
  2. what are two types of prokaryotic organisms
    archae and bacteria
  3. what is the typical size range of a eukaryotic cell
    10-100 μm
  4. what are the characteristics of living organisms
    • reproduction
    • growth
    • responsivness
    • metabolism
  5. what is only found in eukaryotic cells
    endocytosis
  6. sometimes prokaryotic cells are are surrounded by a sticky gelatinous substance which is
    glycocalyx
  7. which microorganisms show all the characteristics of life
    • Archaea
    • Eukaryotes
    • Bacteria
  8. does growth occur in viruses
    no
  9. do viruses reproduce
    host cell replicates the virus
  10. what are the ways to reproduce
    • Binary fission
    • Mitosis
    • meiosis
    • budding
  11. ways to metabolise
    • Glycolysis
    • Krebbs/TCA
    • ETC
  12. do viruses have cell structure
    viruses lack cytoplasmic membrane
  13. what is cell theory
    everything that is living is composed of a cell or cells
  14. tumble occurs when flagella
    rotate clockwise
  15. Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellum?
    Monotrichous
  16. Peritrichous bacteria make a run when
    the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled.
  17. Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?
    Lophotrichous and monotrichous
  18. Which of the following molecules would be blocked by a cell membrane?
    ions
  19. Hydrophobic molecules would enter a cell
    through integral transport proteins.
  20. What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?
    It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins.
  21. A positively charged sodium ion
    would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane.
  22. Which of the following statements regarding active transport is false?
    It powers the diffusion of water across the cell membrane.
  23. Which of the following statements about bacterial flagella is true?
    Flagella can rotate 360 degrees.
  24. Taxis is
    movement towards or away from a stimulus.
  25. Which of the following terms refers to a bacterium moving towards a light source?
    Positive phototaxis
  26. As a bacterium approaches a food source, one would expect
    runs to become more frequent
  27. Why are receptors on the cell surface necessary for bacterial movement?
    The receptors sense the stimulus and send signals to the flagella.
  28. What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, and allowing others to freely pass?
    They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
  29. Integral proteins are mostly involved in
    transport function
  30. How does water enter and exit a cell?
    By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein
  31. A glycoprotein
    is a type of peripheral protein above that can be used as a receptor or in enzymatic functions.
  32. What structural part of a bacterial flagellum is composed of flagellin?
    filament
  33. How are Gram-positive and Gram-negative flagella different?
    A Gram-positive flagellum has only two rings in its basal body; Gram-negatives each have four.
  34. The rings
    anchor the flagellum to the cell membrane.
  35. The basal body is comprised of which structural component(s) of flagella?
    Rod and Rings
  36. Pathogenic bacteria
    can be identified and classified by differences in their flagellar proteins.
  37. Which of the following scenarios is an example of bacterial motility?
    A bacterium moving towards a food source
  38. Axial filaments are found on
    spirochetes.
  39. How do axial filaments differ from regular bacterial flagella?
    The axial filament is located between the cell membrane and the outer membrane.
  40. What is the advantage to spirochetes of the corkscrew movement provided by axial filaments?
    It allows the cells to move more easily through viscous human tissues and fluids, such as mucus.
  41. Axial filaments are composed of
    endoflagella
  42. Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms?
  43. N-acetylmuramic acid
  44. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits the formation of
    peptide cross-links. Amoxicillin, therefore, would most likely inhibit
    the growth of __________.
  45. both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms
  46. Porins are present in ______________bacteria because, in these
    organisms, molecules entering the cell must pass through an extra layer
    of ___________.
  47. Gram-negative; membrane
  48. Why is ATP necessary for active transport?
    ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient.
  49. Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?
    Symport
  50. Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?
    Uniport and Symport
  51. Which molecule shown in the animation, the square or the circle, is moving against its concentration gradient?
    Both the circle and the square
  52. Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?
    Antiport and Symport
  53. Which of the active transport types employs diffusion?
    Symport
  54. What type of transport uses two transport proteins?
    Symport
  55. Sodium and potassium ions
    need to be pumped simultaneously against their concentration gradients.
    Which one of the transport proteins would be most effective at this?
    Antiport
  56. Why are ATPases associated with active transport proteins?
    They provide transport proteins with the energy needed to pump molecules against their concentration gradients.
  57. Efflux pumps can be used to pump antibiotics out of a cell once they enter to protect the cell. This will be done against the concentration gradient of the antibiotic. Which of the active transports would most likely be used?
    Uniport
  58. How is osmosis different from simple diffusion?
    Water movement is driven by the concentration of solutes rather than its own concentration.
  59. Nonspecific permeases
    allow a variety of molecules to cross the cytoplasmic membrane.
  60. What will happen to a cell
    that is placed in a solution containing a high concentration of sugar, a
    molecule that cannot pass across the cell membrane?
    The cell will lose its interior water, causing it to shrivel up and possibly die.
  61. How is simple diffusion different from other types of passive transport?
    Simple diffusion does not require a permease.
  62. Why is no energy required in passive transport?
    The concentration gradient drives the movement.
  63. Once equilibrium is reached,
    molecules move, but there is no net movement in a particular direction.
  64. Which of the following would not move freely across the cytoplasmic membrane?
    Positively charged hydrogen ions
  65. Peptidoglycan is a polymer of millions of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and
    N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) sugars based on glucose molecules linked
    together in long chains cross-braced with four amino acids that link
    individual polymer chains together in a chain-link fence pattern. Layers
    of cross-braced NAG and NAM sheets are stacked vertically and held
    together by proteins with lipid anchors attached to the cell’s
    cytoplasmic membrane to form a scaffold of sugars and proteins that is
    able to hold the bacterial cell’s shape, even in response to extreme
    osmotic pressures. How would you expect a microbiology student to be
    able to describe the composition of peptidoglycan?What is the composition of the peptidoglycan layers found in the cell wall of bacteria?
    short amino acid chains, NAG, NAM, and some lipid proteins
  66. gram postive contains these 3 things
    • thick peptidoglycan wall
    • single lipid bilayer membrane
    • teichoic acid
  67. gram neg contains these 4 things
    • thin peptidoglycan wall
    • double lipid bilayer membrane
    • periplasmic space
    • lipopolysacharrides
  68. At this point in writing your tutorial, you have to find a way to get
    across to the students the importance of a cell wall to a bacterium. How
    do you convey that the bacterial cell will be at the mercy of its
    environment? The cell wall will need to act as a support mechanism to
    neutralize the inflow or outflow of water that would alter the shape of
    the cell. The cell cannot search out for a better place in the
    environment that has more available water; or if there is water that it
    has a high enough solute concentration that the cell will not gain
    water. Because that's the problem for a bacterial cell, it cannot
    control the tonicity due to solute concentrations in the surrounding
    water. Water will flow in or out depending on solute concentrations and
    the only thing a bacterial cell can do to keep from collapsing due to
    water loss or rupturing due to too much water coming in is to have a
    strong cell wall that will hold its shape regardless of the osmotic
    pressures. The rigidity of the cell wall will maintain a set shape
    regardless of water flow. The proteins and lipids that anchor the
    cytoplasmic membrane to the cell wall will tether the membrane to the
    peptidoglycan layer so that when environmental conditions result in the
    loss of water from the cell, the membrane will not collapse in on
    itself. Similarly, changes in environmental conditions that would result
    in the inflow of water would expand the volume of the cell to the
    limits of the cell wall and no more.The composition of the cell wall
    allows for the expansion and contraction of the cell wall in response
    to the gain or loss of water from the cell. t or f
    FALSE
  69. A cell wall is a requirement for all living bacteria.
    false
  70. Image of a single round bacterium.
    cocci
  71. Image of a single rodishaped bacterium.
    bacilli
  72. Image of a cluster of round bacteria.
    staphalococci
  73. Image of a string of rodishaped bacteria.
    streptobacilli
  74. Image of a vibrio (commaishaped) bacterium.
    vibrio
  75. Image of a corkscrewishaped spirochete bacterium.
    spirochete
  76. With the description of the
    different cell walls, membranes, and associated proteins set in the
    students' minds, you now need to introduce them to the idea that the
    cell wall can also act as a foundation to build things upon. Bacterial
    appendages require a strong foundation that will offer the support
    needed to move and function in a dynamic world. For example, flagella
    are long, whiplike protein structures that are used by many
    Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for locomotion. In order to
    function effectively, a flagellum must be firmly anchored to the cell
    wall. How will you be able to get across the idea that the peptidoglycan
    cell wall is strong enough to support such a mechanism? With a protein
    rod that passes through the cell wall and protein rings used to anchor
    it in the membranes, these basal bodies are the rudimentary biological
    motors that use ATP power to spin the hook and the flagella attached to
    it.Bacterial flagella have a biological motor that spins within the
    cell wall and is powered by ATP. This allows the flagella to spin in a
    whiplike motion to propel the bacterium.
    Is this statement True or False? Choose the answer that you think is correct.
    falso
  77. Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?
  78. nucleus
  79. The structural framework in a cell is the
    cytoskeleton
  80. Where in a cell is ATP made?
    mitochondria
  81. What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?
    mRNA
  82. One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by
    ribosomes
  83. Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?
  84. Golgi apparatus
  85. Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles?
    lysosomes
  86. Where are lipids made in the cell?
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  87. What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?
  88. plasma membrane
  89. Peptidoglycans are composed of sugars and _____.
    amino acids
  90. One chain of alternating NAGs and NAMs is connected to another chain via _____.
    tetrapeptides
  91. One of the main differences
    between a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterial cell wall is that
    the peptidoglycan portion of a Gram-positive cell wall is _____ as
    compared to a Gram-negative cell wall.
    thicker
  92. Within the peptidoglycan layer, the crossbridges that connect the chains of alternating sugar molecules extend between _____.
    two N-acetylmuramic acid molecules
  93. The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is most analogous to _____.
    a chain-link fence
  94. What role do the teichoic acids play within the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria?
    They serve to stabilize the cell wall and hold it in place.
  95. The region between the outer
    and inner membranes of a Gram-negative bacterial cell is known as the
    __________, and it is the location of enzymes that assemble
    peptidoglycan.
    periplasmic space
  96. A patient is infected with
    Gram-negative bacteria and is experiencing only mild symptoms. When the
    patient is given an antibiotic causing lysis of the bacterial cells, he
    suddenly experiences an increase in inflammation and fever, as well as
    the formation of blood clots. What explanation best describes what
    happened?
    The lysis of the cells releases lipid A from the lipopolysaccharide layer.

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