What barrier to voting in post Reconstruction Texas was rarely used?
What eliminated barriers to voting for blacks?
voting rights act of 1965
How can one get his/her name on the ballot in Tx?
being named by a national party committee
Electronic voting in Tx:
costly but viewed as a necessary investment
Describe early voting in Tx.
permitted w/o giving an explanation since 1998
Closed primary election:
contest excludes supporters of other political parties
Open primary election:
voters do not declare party affiliation to partipate
NOT an example of direct democracy.
elections on constitutional amendments
right to vote
Eliminated the use of white primaries in Tx:
Voting Rights Act of 1965:
was initiated by American federal gov't, not the Tx state gov't
Electoral candidate w/o political part affiliation:
Help America Vote Act:
standardized election procedures
What day are national elections held:
first Tuesday after the first Monday in November
Candidate who already holds the office up for election:
Second order elections refer to:
election in which offices below the national chief executive are elected
# of ppl casting ballots in a given election
Describes the development of political parties in Tx:
democratic party support has dominated election results for most of the state's history
rewards from elected officials for campaign supporters
NOT a function of political parties
build cohesion between the state party and the directives of the nat'l party
NOT part of the state party organization:
state convention delegates
Theoretical view that each party should hold firmly to a clear and consistent set of policies refers to:
responsible party model
group that rarely wins elections
rarely achieves majority status
sees few reasons for active engagement
must look outside its area for representation
Temporary party organization:
where ordinary party members meet
Permanent party organization:
where party officials meet
Political party plank:
individual issue positions of the party platform
By the year ____, Democrats were unable to effectively challenge Republican for any statewide office.
group in which decistion making resides w/ avg citizens
What would make a runoff primary necessary?
no candidate receiving a majority of the votes
2 party officers that primary voters elect?
Tx 2 step:
candidates must win a 2 step election process
benefit by the vacuum left by a lack of party competition in Tx
Texas economic interest group:
Tx State Teachers Assn.
The phenomena of legislators and members of the executive branch moving easily from gov't office to lucrative positions w/ lobbying firms:
Idea that a greater number of organized interests means wider participation and a healthier democracy:
Idea that a greater number of narrow interests makes it difficult to formulate public policy that will serve the broader public interest:
Public interest group:
org. that pursue noneconomic policies on behalf of the general populace
org. of similar businesses working together to advance shared goals
org that represents the interests of working ppl seeking better pay and better working conditions
_____ is the method used by organized interests to try to shape public policy by influencing those elected or appointed to office (usually face to face)
_____ is when a group takes its case to court, filing a lawsuit b/c it believes the rights of its members have been violated.
How does the part time nature of Tx gov't create greater opportunity for the influence of organized interest than in states w/ full time gov't?
legislators rely on interests for the information they provide
Organized interests can best overcome the free rider problem to join by providing:
selective incentives that only group members can enjoy
A benfit of joining a group that is merely the good feelings one enjoys from voicing his/her support for a worthy cause is a(n):
Tx Office of State Federal Relations would be an example of which type of organized interest?
Contributing funds to candidates through a political action committee (PAC) is an example of organized interest:
Organized interests represent constituents in the following ways:
speak for voters
forum to share position of certain issue
bring party leaders attn to important issues
What is the defined feature of the astroturf movement?
propelled primarily by political elites
What is true about Tx law on lobbyist and political contributions to legislators?
no restrictions as long as they are registered with the state
those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it
if the ppl are to be our governors, they must arm themselves with knowledge
i know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of the society but ppl themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take if from them, but to inform their discretion by education
a popular gov't, w/o popular information, or the means of acquiring it, is but a prologue to a farce of a tragedy...a ppl who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves w/ the power which knowledge gives
a man who has nothing for which he is willing to fight; nothing he cares about more than his own personal safety, is a miserable creature who has no chance of being free, unless made and kept so by the exertions of better men than himself
John Stuart Mill
do not despise compromise, for it is the cement that keeps this country together
gov't is too important to be a spectator sport
mischief's of a faction
taxes are what we pay for civilized society
Oliver Wendall Holmes
the legitimate object of gov't, is to do for a community of ppl, whatever they need to have done, but cannot do, at all, or cannot so well do, for themselves in their seperate, and individual capacities
its not the critic that counts
all the forces of darkness need to succeed...is for ppl to do nothing
it is better to be silent and be thought a fool than to open one's mouth and remove all doubt
monsters exist, but they are too few in number to be truly dangerous
minimal role for gov't and maximum individual rights.
philosophy of Thomas Jefferson and authors of the Constitution
ppl have natural rights apart from gov't
gov't should solve social problems
gov't should regulate work place and the economy
respect for civil liberties
modern (contemporary) liberalism
more citizen voter involvement
attempts to give them a greater voice in the decision making process
minimal role for gov't
pro business (corporation)
opposed to minimum wage
personal moral beliefs
believe gov't cannot fix social and economic problems
focused on creating wealth
anti welfare and redistribution of wealth
some elements of anarchism
want little to no gov't
oppose moral crime laws (abortion, porn)
oppose regulations on business
want gold standard