Microbiology

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Author:
kaori
ID:
283345
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2014-09-19 15:29:35
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Microbial Genetics
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Microbial Genetics
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  1. Both RNA and DNA nucleotides contain a negatively charged ___ ___.
    Nucleic Acid
  2. A DNA sequence 'signal' preceding a gene is called the ___ sequence.
    Promoter
  3. During DNA replication, the ___ stand is composed of Okazaki fragments and is made by discontinuous replication.
    Lagging
  4. RNA polymerase copies the base sequence of the DNA ____ strand.
    Master
  5. ____ is a source of genetic variation that occurs when bacteria "pick up" loose DNA released from dead cells in their environment.
    Transformation
  6. During eukaryotic mRNA processing, parts of the mRNA(introns) are cut out and the remainder(exons) are attached back together; this is referred to as ___ and provides additional genetic variability.
    Splicing
  7. ____ is a source of genetic variation in bacteria that occurs when viruses transfer DNA from one bacterium to another.
    Transduction
  8. RNA polymerase begins building a new strand at the ____ prime end.
    5
  9. Guanine and cytosine are joined with _____ hydrogen bonds.
    3
  10. Transferase helps to form a ___ bond between two adjoining amino acid at the ribosome.
    Peptide
  11. ___ bonds occur down the middle of the DNA molecule, holding complementary bases together.
    Hydrogen
  12. A DNA signal following a gene is called the ____ sequence.
    Termination
  13. The enzyme ___ ____ joins the Okazaki fragment together.
    DNA Ligase
  14. A ___ is a permanent change in the DNA code.
    Mutation
  15. Most amino acids have more than one corresponding codon because there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids; the code is referred to as _____.
    Redundent
  16. In DNA, ____ is joined to adenine with 2 hydrogen bonds; Uracil replaces it in RNA molecules.
    Thymine
  17. 23 year old James Watson and 35 year old Francis ___ figured out the structure of DNA in 1953, and won the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their work.
    Crick
  18. Eukaryotic RNA undergoes ____ in the nucleus, before entering the cytoplasm; a GTP cap is added to the 5' end, a poly-A tail is added to the 3' end and the RNA is spliced with some pieces discarded.
    Processing
  19. A ___ is any chemical or physical agent that causes mutation.
    Mutagen
  20. The overall shape of DNA (similar to a twisted ladder) is described as a ___ ____.
    Double Helix
  21. During DNA replication, ___ replication occurs on the leading strand.
    Countinuous
  22. Adenine and thymine are joint by ____ hydrogen bonds.
    2
  23. Strong ___ bonds hold nucleotides together and link nucleotides down the sides of the DNA ladder.
    Colavent
  24. The pentose in RNA nucleotides is called ___.
    Ribose
  25. mRNA → protein is the part of protein synthesis called ____.
    Translation
  26. Each side of a DNA molecule can serve as a ___ or pattern for the synthesis of a new strand because of complementary base pairing.
    Template
  27. In the midst of DNA replication, ___ enzymes are constantly "checking" the new strand against the old strand to find and fix any mistakes.
    Repair
  28. Prokaryotic DNA has ____ origin(s) of replication.
    1
  29. ___ ___ mutations are caused by an insertion or a deletion.
    Frame Shift
  30. DNA ____ is described as semi-conservative because each daughter DNA is half original and half newly built.
    Replication
  31. Protein synthesis occurs in the ____ of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
    Cytoplasm
  32. Fram shift mutations are caused by an ___ or a deletion.
    Insertion
  33. ___ and cytosine join with 3 hydrogen bonds.
    Guanine
  34. The pentose in DNA is called ____.
    Deoxyribose
  35. During DNA replication, the ____ strand is built by continuous replication.
    Leading
  36. The organelle involved in protein synthesis is a ____.
    Ribosome
  37. A gene is a region of DNA that codes for a ____ that in turn, determines a trait.
    Protein
  38. Each side of a DNA molecule can serve as a template or pattern for the synthesis of a new strand because of ____ base pairing.
    Complementary
  39. Genetics is the study of ____, or how genes are passed down from generation to generation.
    Heredity
  40. ____ is the study of heredity, or how genes are passed down from generation to generation.
    Genetics
  41. DNA nucleotides are assembled into two ___ - ____ strands with complementary base pairing down the middle.
    Anti-Parallel
  42. UV ___ often causes thymine dimers to form; next-door-neighbor thymines on the same side bind, causing the DNA to pooch out, blocking replication or transcription from this point on.
    Radiation
  43. ___ is joined to guanine with 3 hydrogen bonds.
    Adenine
  44. ___ ___ is a two step process; transcription followed by translation.
    Protein Synthesis
  45. During stand separation prior to DNA replication, ___ ___ ___ proteins attach to the outside o the DNA stands to precent them from joining right back together.
    Single Strand Binding
  46. DNA is a organic compound called a ___ ___; it is composed of nucleotides.
    Nucleic Acid
  47. The ____ is a disposable region of noncoding eukaryotic DNA at the 5' ends. If DNA did not have these noncoding end regions, any necessary information the 5' ends contain would be lost. These ends of DNA molecules limit the number of cell divisions in most cells. Because the prokaryotic chromosome is a loop, there are no ends.
    Telomere
  48. Adenine and ___ are double-ringed nitrogen bases called purines.
    Guanine
  49. A premature stop signal results from a ____ substation mutation.
    Nonsense
  50. One source of genetic variation in bacteria is a primitive "mating" process called ____.
    Conjugation
  51. DNA Replication occurs in the ____ of a eukaryotic cell.
    Nucleus
  52. To begin DNA replication, RNA primes (building from 5' to 3') begins making short strand of RNA according to the DNA template. The DNA polymerase can take over and build DNA the rest of the way. A short piece of this beginner RNA is called a ____.
    Primer
  53. During DNA replication, the lagging strand is composed of ____ fragments.
    Okazaki
  54. Structurally built into the ribosome, ___ is the enzyme that helps from a peptide bond between two adjoining amino acids.
    Transferase
  55. Adenine and guanine are double-ringed nitrogen bases called ____.
    Purines
  56. The term ___ refers to the genetic information of an organism; usually indicated by symbols such as BB,Bb, or bb in eukaryotic  organisms and a+ or a- in prokaryotic organisms.
    Genotype
  57. 23 year old James ____ and 35 year old Francis Crick figured out the structure of DNA in 1953, and won the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their work.
    Watson
  58. During RNA processing in eukaryotes, a ___ ___ is added to the 5' end to enable it to attach to an 80s ribosome.
    GTP Cap
  59. ↺DNA → mRNA → protein is the ___ ____ of biology, illustrating information flow in living cells.
    Central Dogma
  60. A ___ is a segment of DNA that codes for a protein, which in turn determines a trait.
    Gene
  61. Cytosine and guanine are joined by ___ hydrogen bonds.
    3
  62. The outward expression of an organism's genotype is known as its ____; it usually consists of a descriptive phrase such as brown eyes or blue eyes in humans, capsulated or non capsulated in bacteria.
    Phenotype
  63. During stand separation prior to DNA replication, the enzyme ___ unwinds and separate ("unzips") the DNA stands.
    Helicase
  64. Frame shift mutations are caused by an insertion or a ____.
    Deletion
  65. Eukaryotic DNA has ___ origins of replication.
    Many
  66. An ___ is a 3-letter sequence on tRNA that is complementary to the codon on mRNA.
    Anticodon
  67. Mutations are usually detrimental, but on rare occasions they can provide beneficial variations; better variations are more likely to be passed on to the next generation; This is known as ____ ____ ___ ____
    Survival of the Fittest
  68. As DNA is pulled apart during the replication process, it forms a replication ____, composed of two replication forks opening in opposite directions.
    Bubble
  69. DNA→mRNA is a part of protein synthesis called ____.
    Transcription
  70. During strand separation prior to DNA replication, ___ work ahead of the replication fork, nicking one side of the DNA molecule to relieve stress and prevent super-coiling.
    Tropisomerase
  71. A ____ (or silent) substitution mutation occurs when the original amino acid is still coded for ; this is possible because the code is redundant and many amino acids have more than one code word.
    Neutral
  72. ___ pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA.
    Adenine
  73. ____ in cigarettes are well known mutagens.
    Chemical
  74. An ___ of replication is a place where the replication process begins; as the DNA pulls apart, it forms a replication bubble, composed of two forks opening in opposite directions.
    Origin
  75. ___ ___ is the enzyme that builds mRNA b copying the sequence of bases in the master strand of DNA.
    RNA Polymerase
  76. Missense, nonsense and neutral mutations are all grouped together as ____ mutations.
    Substitute
  77. The letters DNA stands for _____ _____
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid
  78. The "m" in mRNA stands for the word ____.
    Messenger
  79. Deoxynucleotide-____ (similar to ATP) provide the energy for DNA synthesis.
    Triphosphate
  80. During strand separation prior to DNA replication, topoisomerase work ahead of the replication ___, nicking one side of the DNA molecule to relieve stress and prevent super-coiling.
    Fork
  81. DNA replication is referred to as ___ ___ because each daughter DNA is half original and half newly built.
    Semi-Conservative
  82. Separation of the DNA strands prior to replication or transcription is often referred to as ____.
    Unzipping
  83. ___ ___ is the enzyme that build new DNA strands during replication; it builds the new strand from 5' to the 3' direction by adding onto the RNA primers.
    DNA Polymerase
  84. In RNA, ___ is a pyrimidine that takes the place of thymine; it also joins to adenine with 2 hydrogen bonds.
    Uracil
  85. Adenine and ___ are joined by two hydrogen bonds.
    Thymine
  86. Transcription occurs in the ___ of a eukaryotic cell.
    Necleus
  87. DNA replication occurs in the ___ of a prokaryotic cell.
    Cytoplasm
  88. UV radiation often causes thymine ___ to form; next-door-neighbor thymines on the same side bind, causing the DNA to pooch out, blocking replication or transcription from this point on.
    Dimers
  89. ___ are the ultimate source of all genetic variation in all forms of life.
    Mutation
  90. Guanine and ___ join with 3 hydrogen bonds.
    Cytosine
  91. Each ___ prime end of a DNA or RNA strand ends with a phosphate group.
    5
  92. ___ is the process by chichi a mutation occurs; it may be due to uncorrected errors during replication or mutagens.
    Mutagenesis
  93. During eukaryotic RNA processing, a "____-____ ____" is added to the 3' end to protect the RNA from degrading enzymes in the cytoplasm.
    Poly-A Tail
  94. A gene is a segment of DNA on a ___ that codes for a protein that determines a trait.
    Chromosome
  95. During DNA replication, ____ replication occurs on the lagging strand.
    Discontinuous
  96. ___ bonds join the two sides of a DNA molecule.
    Hydrogen
  97. A gene is a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a protein that determines a ____.
    Trait
  98. Cytosine, thymine and uracil are single ringed nitrogen bases called _____.
    Prymidines
  99. The enzyme ___ ___ actually begins that construction of new DNA strands by haying down short RNA primers.
    RNA Primase
  100. The "t" in tRNA stands for the word ____.
    Transfer
  101. A ___ ___ is used to transfer DNA from donor to recipient during bacterial conjugation.
    Sex Pilus
  102. A ___ is a 3-part building block in both DNA and RNA.
    Nucleotide
  103. A ___ is a 3-letter "code word" on mRNA that is complementary to the anticodon on tRNA.
    Codon
  104. ___ joins to thymine in DNA and to uracil in RNA with 2 hydrogen bonds.
    Adenine
  105. A ____ substitution mutation occurs when the wrong amino acid is coded for.
    Missense
  106. ____ is the scientific study of the genes.
    Genetics
  107. _____ is the cell size, shape and arrangement.
    Morphology
  108. Adenine and Guanine are the double ringed ____.
    Purines
  109. Cytosine and thymine are the single ringed ____.
    Pyrimidines
  110. In ___ cells, transcription and translation are basically simultaneous.
    Prokaryotic
  111. ____ radiation, such as x-rays and gamma radiation cause DNA molecules to become highly reactive and break apart.
    Ionizing
  112. _____ radiation (UV) creates thymine dimers
    Nonionizing
  113. ____ occurs when bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) transfer pieces of bacterial DNA from one cell to another.
    Transduction
  114. Bacterial have only ____ chromosome and therefore have only ____ copy of each gene!
    One

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