A & P

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Author:
melissa123assilem
ID:
283352
Filename:
A & P
Updated:
2014-09-17 17:31:17
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Lab
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LAb
Description:
Lab for practical 1
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  1. Plasma membrane
    Seperation between cell contents and outside; allows substances to transport through
  2. Cytoplasm
    Vell content(gel like fluid)
  3. Nucleus
    Control center, genetic material DNA
  4. Cytoskeleton
    Internal support
  5. Mitochondria
    Energy ATP producer through cell respiration
  6. Ribosomes
    Protein Synthesis
  7. Endoplasmic reticulum
    Internal transport of molecules
  8. Goli apparatus (complex)
    Packages molecules for export from cell
  9. Peroxisome
    Detoxifies
  10. Centriole
    cell division
  11. Cilia
    Tiny hairs for movement
  12. Flagella
    Tail for movement
  13. Interphase
    Cell is in non-division or preparing for cell devision
  14. Mitosis
    Nuclear division
  15. Cytokinesis
    cytoplasmic division
  16. Prophase
    Chromosomes thicken, nuclear membrane disappears, centrioles go towards the pole, mititic spindle fibers form. PMAT
  17. Metaphase
    Chromosomes are lined up at the equator
  18. Anaphase
    Chromosomes seperate and go towards the poles(hands)
  19. Telophase
    Chromosomes almost reach the poles, new nuclear membrane forms, cytokinesis occurs
  20. Depth of focus
    vertical distance of abject
  21. total magnification
    specimen is enlarged
  22. ATP
    RNA nucleotide responsible for providing energy needed for almost all lifes processes
  23. RNA
    single strands of nucleotides, 1/2 strands of ladder, each ring is a nitrogenous base
  24. DNA
    Double helix which resembles a twisted ladder, each rung is made up of 2 nitrogenous bases held together by hydrogen bonds
  25. A,C,T,G........DNA
    adenine,cytosine,thymine,guanine
  26. RNA- a,c,u,g
    Adenine,cytosine,uracil,guanine
  27. dexyribose in DNA and Ribose in RNA
    Sugar
  28. Nucleic acids
    contain DNA,RNA. made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus and used to store and transfer info
  29. Protiens
    amino acids...more than 50 its called a protien-1000 are considered macromolecules
  30. Phospholipids
    contain 1 phosphorus group, 1 glycerol and 2 fatyy acid chains
  31. Lipids
    neutral fats, phospholipids and steroids. used for energy storage, insulation and are componets for cell membranes.
  32. Lipids are made up of?
    Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and contain many nonpolar methyl groups which prevent lipids from dissolving into water
  33. Hydroxyl
    Alcohol, -OH, different than OH- in bases, which is hydroxide.
  34. Hydroxyl group is found?
    carbs, which include monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
  35. Carboxyl
    -COOH  carboxylic acid,
  36. Carboxyl is found?
    fatty acid chains, which make up most types of lipids, and amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.
  37. Amine
    -NH2
  38. Amine is found?
    amino acids, which make up proteins
  39. Ketone
    -C=O
  40. Ketone found in?
    byproduct of fatty acid metabolism. Ketones are strong and can affect the PH of body fluids
  41. Chemical Buffers
    Substances that neutralize the effect of changes in PH by attching to H+ or releasing H+, many buffers are weak acids or weak bases
  42. Bases
    • 7-14 when bases dissociated in water, they release hydroxide ions(OH-) Bases attach to H+ in solution
    • Bases are proton (H+) acceptors
  43. Acids
    0-7, when acids dissolved in water, they release hydrogen ions(H+) the number of H+ determine the acidity of a solution. H+ are also called PROTONS, acids are proton donors-donates protons.
  44. PH
    Defined as the number or concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution.
  45. CAtion
    Ion with a + charge, formed when an atom of an element loses an electron
  46. Anion
    Ion with a - charge, formed when an atom of an element gains an electron
  47. Reproductive
    • male- testes, penis
    • Female- ovaries, uterus, vagina

    • male-provides sperm to have babies
    • Female- provides eggs to have babies
  48. Urinary
    • Kidneys, bladder
    • Maintains water, electrolyte and acid base balance of blood. rids the body of nitrogen-containing waste-urea
  49. Digestive
    • GI tract, liver, pancreas
    • Digestion and absorption
  50. Respiratory
    • Nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
    • Keeps blood supplies with oxygen while removing carbon dioxide
  51. Lymphatic
    • Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils
    • Cleanses body protecting against foreign substances
  52. Cardiovascular
    • Heart, blood vessels, blood
    • Transport system that carries blood containing oxygen, and nutrients to the body cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from the body
  53. Endocrine
    • Various glands
    • Helps maintain homeostasis by producing hormones(slow communication)
  54. Nervous
    • Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
    • Allows body to rapidly detect changes and to respond(rapid communication)
  55. Muscular
    • Muscles attached to the skeleton
    • Contractions for locomotion, generates heat
  56. Skeletal
    • Bones, cartilages and joints
    • Body support and protection of internal organs, provides levers for muscular action blood cell formation
  57. Integumentary
    • Epidermal and dermal skin
    • Protects deeper organs from ingury excretes waste, regulates body temp
  58. Dorsal
    Spinal(vertebral) and Cranial
  59. Ventral
    Thoracic and Abdominopelvic
  60. Thoracic
    pericardial, pleural,mediastinum
  61. Abdominopelvic
    abdominal and pelvic
  62. G1
    Inital growth preparing DNA replication
  63. S
    DNA replication
  64. G@
    Second growth-prepairing for mitosis
  65. M
    Mitosis
  66. G0
    Idle phase
  67. Epithelial tissue
    Line surfaces with connective tissue
  68. Simple squamous epithelium
    • single layer of flatted cells with flattened nucleus
    • lung air sacs, kidney membrane
    • exchange material by diffusion and filtrationm
  69. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    • single layer of cells that are equal in height and ¬†width witha spherical nucleus
    • kidney tubules
    • secretion and absorption
  70. simple columnar epithelium
    • single layer of cells which are higher than they are wide, with vertically elongated nucleus
    • lines digestive tract
    • secretion and absorption
  71. Stratified squamous epithelium
    • stratified ep with top cells flattened squamous cells
    • skin. mouth, esophagus, vagina, anus
    • physical protection against wear and friction
  72. Pseudostratified columnar ep
    • Fakely stratified columbar cells
    • lines the trachea
    • secretion of mucus traps debris, then cilia moves the mucus
  73. Transitional ep
    • Stratified ep with the top cells "transitioning" from flat squamous-like cell when the tissue is streched, to a cuboidal-like domed cell when the tissue is relaxed
    • Lines urinary bladder
    • protection and allows stretching and recoiling
  74. Plasma membrane
    Composed of a phospholipid bilayer
  75. Smoth ER
    lipid synthesis-Series of membrane-enclosed sacs that detoxify substances and synthesize lipids
  76. Mitochondria
    Produces the bulk of the cells ATP
  77. Ribosomes
    Granular organelles that are the sites of protein synthesis
  78. Rough ER
    Protein synthesis-Series of membranes-encloused sacs with ribosomes on the surface
  79. Nucleus
    Biosynthetic center of the cell
  80. Nucleolus
    The cell's "ribosome factory"
  81. Lysosome
    hydrolytic enzymes-membranes contain-Contains digestive enzymes
  82. Microtubule
    cytoskeletal filament found in the cilia and flagella
  83. Golgi apparatus
    Stack of flattened sacs that modify and sort proeins
  84. Mitochondrion
    power house, cell respiration
  85. peroxisome
    detox
  86. centriole
    mitotic spindle

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