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- All living or recently living parts of an ecosystem or interactions between living thins in said ecosystem.
- Plants, animals, fungi, mitochondria.
- Symbiosis is the interactions between two different species living in close proximity.
- It breaks into mutual (both organisms benefit [mushrooms and trees]) and parasitic (one benefits, one is harmed [mosquito and humans]).
- Predation is when one organism is consumed by another (wolf eats rabbit).
- Competition is when two organisms battle over resources (two wolf packs fight for space).
- All interacting parts of a biological community and the surrounding environment.
- For example, a forest, pond, rain forest.
- Ecosystems capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety or organisms.
- For example, Waterloo, Amazon.
- All non-living parts of an ecosystem.
- Water, nutrients, breathable substance, light and soil.
- Hard part of the Earth's surface
- Rocks, soil
- Liquid part of the Earth's surface
- All freshwater lakes/rivers/ponds and all salt water oceans
- Layer of gas above the earth's surface
- All the living things in the other spheres
- Animals, living things in soil
- Ecological processes result in a matter moving among other spheres
- Matter is always recycled but never lost through the process
- Chemicals needed by living organisms to survive
- Cycled through all spheres
- Excess nutrients cause an overgrowth of algae.
- Usually this process is quite slow, but when humans interfere the process speeds up.
A - Air contains carbon in the form of () gas. Plants and algae use () to make sugars which are energy-rich, carbon-containing compounds.
B - Organisms break down () molecules made by plants and algae to obtain () for life and growth. () is released as waster.
C - Burning () fuels and woods releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
D - When organisms die their () -containing molecules become part of the soil. These molecules are broken down by (), () and other decomposers. During the decay process carbon dioxide is released into the air.
E - Under certain conditions the remain of dead organisms may gradually change into fossil fuels such as (), () and (). These carbon compounds are energy rich.
- A - Carbon Dioxide
- B - Sugar, Energy, Carbon Dioxide
- C - Fossil
- D - Carbon, Fungi, Bacteria
- E - Coal, Gas, Oil
- Stored in the lithosphere as rocks or sediment.
- Released into the soil when rocks are broken down during weathering.
- Gets absorbed by plants and moves through the food chain as plants and animals are consumed
- Phosphate is returned to soil when bacteria breaks down dead organisms.
- Enters aquatic ecosystems through run-off and leaching, then settles as sediment.
- Nitrogen is converted into nitrate and ammonium by soil bacteria.
- Plants absorb the nitrate and it is passed through the levels of the food chain as organisms are consumed.
- Bacteria and volcanic eruptions turn the nitrate back into nitrogen and return it to the atmosphere.
- Excess nitrate leeches into the lithosphere and becomes part of rocks and is released when rocks break down.
- Conversion of solar energy to chemical energy to be used as "food".
- Carbon dioxide+water=glucose+oxygen (in the presence of light and with chlorophyll).
- Can be done by plants, algae and bacteria.
- Depends on light and chlorophyll.
- Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are bonded to make glucose (sugar).
- CO2 enters through pores in leaves and HO2 enters through roots.
- O2 is the product released into the atmosphere to be used in cellular respiration.
- Categories or organisms defined by how they consume energy.
- Primary produce - makes their own food.
- Consumer - cannot make own food, must consume other organisms.
- Food chains can be used to show trophic levels.
- Food pyramids can be used to show how energy stored in biomass moves through throphic levels in food chains.
The total mass of living organisms in an area
- A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from on trophic level to the next.
- Usually 10% - not all of the organism is eaten
- - not all of the organism is digested (waste)
- - energy is lost as heat
- This loss of energy is why there are usually less carnivores than than herbivores and herbivores than plants.
The increase of toxins in an organism as it is passed on from one organism to another (predation).
A process that releases energy from organic molecules especially carbohydrates in the presence of oxygen.
A process that releases energy from organic molecules in the absence of oxygen.
- An atmospheric gas that prevents heat from escaping the atmosphere.
- Therefore warming the Earth.
- Eg. Methane
The warming of the Earth as a result of greenhouse gases that trap heat that would otherwise leave the atmosphere.
Rain, sleet, snow, fog, etc. that is more acidic than natural (pH 5.6) due to gases in the atmosphere (sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide) that react with water to form acids (sulphuric acid and nitric acid)
- The ingestion of a substance (usually a toxin) by an organism faster than they are being eliminated.
- Human toxin are detrimental to a species (DDT&PCB).