Tissues and Membranes (Chap. 6)

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  1. Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium)
    Forms large continuous sheets.

    Helps form the skin and covers the entire outer surface of the body.

    Lining for internal organs.
  2. Epithelial tissue functions
    • Protection/barrier (sun, water)
    • Filtration (O2/CO2)
    • Absorption (intestines)
    • Secretion (sweat, mucus glands)
  3. Epithelial tissue characteristics
    • Forms continuous sheets (ex. fish scales)
    • Has two surfaces, 1)unattached and 2) attached.
    • Avascular; has NO blood supply of its own
    • Depends on blood supply of underlying connective tissue for nurishment
    • Able to regenerate or repair itself quickly
    • Classified according to cell shape and layers
  4. Epithelial tissue Shapes
    • Squamos epithelium; cells are thin and flat like fish scales
    • Cuboidal epithelium; cells are cube-like and look like dice
    • Columnar epithelium; cells are tall and narrow and look like columns
  5. Epithelial tissue layers
    • Simple epithelium; One layer of cells
    • Stratified epithelium; Two or more layers of cells
  6. Simple Epithelia
    Because they are so thin, they're concerned primarily with movement or transport of various substances across the membranes from one body compartment to another.
  7. Simple Squamous epithelium
    A single layer of squamous cells with an underlying basement of membrane. 

    Found where substances move by rapid diffusion or filtration.
  8. Simple Cuboidal epithelium
    Rests against basement membrane

    Often found in glands & Kidney tubules

    Functions in the transport and secretion of various substances
  9. Simple Columnar epithelium
    Rests on basement membrane

    Tall tightly packed cells line entire stomach (digestive tract) 

    Goblet cells-modified columnar cells
  10. Pseudostratified columnar
    "falsely stratified", appear multilayered

    Facilitate absorption and secretion
  11. Stratified epithelia
    • Multilayered (2-20 layers)
    • Stronger than simple epithelium
    • Protection function
    • Found in tissue exposed to everyday wear and tear (ex. mouth, esophagus, skin)

    Stratified Squamous=most widespread epithelial tissue
  12. Transitional Epithelium
    • Found primarily in organs that stretch (bladder)
    • Cells slide past one another when tissue stretched
    • Appear stratified when unstretched, simple when stretched
  13. Glandular Epithelia
    • Secretion
    • Much is composed of simple cuboidal epithelium
    • Exocrine glands
    • Endocrine glands
  14. Exocrine Glands
    Have ducts, tiny tubes, into which the exocrine secretions are released

    Secretions include: mucus, sweat, saliva, and digestive enzymes
  15. Endocrine Glands
    • Secrete hormones directly into blood, such as insulin
    • Ductless glands
  16. Connective Tissue
    • The most abundant of tissues
    • Widely distributed throughout body
    • Binds together the parts of the body
    • Supports, protects, fat storage, and transport of substances
  17. Connective Tissue Characteristics
    • Good blood supply (except ligaments, tendons, and cartilage)
    • Abundance of intercellular matrix (may be liquid, gel-like/hard that fills btwn cells)
  18. Blast Cells
    • found in connective tissue
    • secrete matrix that is characteristic of that matrix
    •     ex. Fibroblasts (cells found in dense fibrous cells); Chondroblasts (found in cartilage)
  19. (3) Types of connective tissue
    • 1. Loose connective tissue; Areolar, Adipose, Reticular
    • 2. Dense fibrous; Tendons, ligaments, cartilage, Bone tissue
    • 3. Liquid tissue; Blood (plasma) and lymph
  20. Loose Connective Tissue
    • Contains fibers that are loosely arranged around cells.
    • Areolar tissue; made up of collagen and elastin fibers, "Tissue glue", most widely distributed connective tissue
    • Adipose tissue; fat, composed of adipocytes (cells that store fat)
    • Reticular tissue; (fine collagen) loose fibers
  21. Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue
    • Composed of fibroblasts and intercellular matrix, containing Collagen and Elastic Fibers
    • Tendons; cordlike structures that attach muscles to bones
    • Ligaments; cross joints and attach bone to bone. Ability to stretch easily.
    • Fascia; sheets of tissue that covers, supports and anchors organs to nearby structures
  22. Cartilage
    (Dense Fibrous connective tissue)
    • Formed by chondroblasts that eventually  mature into chondrocytes (cartilage cells)
    • Three types of cartilage
    • Hyaline; found in the larynx, end of long bones at joints, the nose, and area between breastbone and ribs
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
  23. Bone
    (Dense Fibrous connective tissue)
    • AKA Osseous tissue
    • formed by Osteocytes (bone cells)-hard intercellular matrix: collagen, calcium salts, and other minerals.
    • Protects organs and supports weight of the body
    • Storage site for mineral salts (calcium)
  24. Blood and Lymph
    (Liquid Connective Tissue)
    • Watery intercellular matrix
    • Blood=plasma
    • Lymphatic vessels=lymph
  25. Nervous tissue
    • Makes up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
    • Two types of cells: Neurons and Neuroglia
    • Neurons; transmit electrical signals, has dendrites, cell body, and axons
    • Neuroglia; supports and takes care of neurons, ability to bind and form vast network of neurons
  26. Muscle Tissue
    • Cells that shorten or contract thereby causing movement.
    • Fibers not cells b/c they are long and slender
    • Three types: Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
  27. Tissue Repair
    • Regeneration; replacement of tissue by cells that undergo mitosis (Skin)
    • Fibrosis; formation of scar tissue
  28. Membranes
    • Thin sheets of tissue that cover surfaces, line body cavities, and surround organs.
    • Epithelial and Connective tissue
  29. Epithelial Membranes
    • Cutaneous Membrane; the skin
    • Mucous Membrane; epithelial membranes that line all body cavities that open to the exterior of the body, secrete mucus (mouth, eyes, anus)
    • Serous Membranes; epithelial membranes that line the ventral body cavities which are not open to the exterior of the body.
  30. Serous membranes
    • Parietal layer; lines the wall of the cavity
    • Visceral layer; covers the outside of an organ
    • Three serous membranes: Pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
  31. Connective tissue Membranes
    • synovial membranes
    • perisoteum
    • perichondrium
    • meninges
    • fascia
Card Set:
Tissues and Membranes (Chap. 6)
2014-09-17 23:40:34
Tissues Membranes

Nurs 151 Chapter 6
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