SNC1D - Chapter 1 Definitions

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  1. What is the similarity difference between bioaccumulation and biomagnification?
    Bioaccumulation and biomagnification both have the concentration materials, or toxins, which are increased in organisms. While bioaccumulation has the toxin ingestion in the organism greater than they could be eliminated, the concentration of the toxin in biomagnification goes up as one organism consumes another.
  2. What is the carbon cycle?
    • -carbon moves between atmosphere and biosphere as carbon dioxide
    • -CO2 goes back to atmosphere when organisms die and decompose
    • -CO enters lithosphere when remains of organisms are trapped underground after millions of years,and then become fossil fuels
  3. What is the process of the water cycle?
    Water moves between the hydrosphere and atmosphere as the Suns rays evaporate large amounts of water from oceans and other bodies of water. As water vaporizes, it cools and condenses, eventually falling back to the lithosphere as precipitation, such as rain, sleet or snow. Precipitation enters the biosphere by being absorbed by plants and other organisms, or it can be consumed by animals.
  4. What is the nutrient cycle?
    Nutrients are chemicals which are needed by living organisms to survive. The nutrients are cycled through all of Earth's spheres.
  5. What are the four spheres of Earth?
    The first sphere is the lithosphere, which is the hard part of Earth's surface (e.g. rock, soil...). The second is the hydrosphere, which is the liquid part of Earth's surface (e.g. salt water oceans, freshwater lakes...). The third is the atmosphere, which are the layers of gases above Earth's surface, such as air. The last sphere is the biosphere, the living part of Earth's surface; not separated from other abiotic spheres. This includes life in soil, water and air.
  6. What is competition?
    Competition is where two or more organisms compete for the same resources in the same location and at the same time (e.g. food, space, water...). For example, dandelions in a field are competing with the grass for the same resources and space. Dandelions may block light from the grass, and may soak up nutrients. Competition can influence the population of the organism.
  7. What is predation?
    Predation is where one organism consumes another for food. The organism being consumed is called the prey, while the one consuming is called the predator. (e.g. a river otter is a predator, whose prey include fish and crabs. But the river otter is also prey to other predators such as coyotes). This can influence the population of all the organisms above, as well as affecting the ecosystem.
  8. What is parasitism?
    Parasitism is symbiosis in which only one organism benefits and the other is harmed (e.g. a vine that has wrapped itself around a tree is taking the nutrients from the tree, making it beneficial to the vine, whereas the tree is losing nutrients and not getting anything back from the vine).
  9. What is mutualism?
    Mutualism is symbiosis in which both organisms benefit from each other (e.g. mushrooms help trees by helping them absorb water and nutrients, and trees help mushrooms by giving them food (sugar)).
  10. What is the definition of symbiosis?
    Symbiosis is the interactions between members of two different species that live in close association. (e.g. mushrooms near trees help the trees to absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Mushroom tissue can help the trees roots from drying out. Mushrooms can get food (sugar), which the tree produces. Both organisms benefit from each other).
  11. What is a sustainable ecosystem?
    A sustainable ecosystem is an ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms. For example, if there is a very harsh winter (like last year), and organisms such as plants, trees and animals survived, then the ecosystem would be considered sustainable.
  12. What is an ecosystem?
    An ecosystem is all the interacting parts of a biological community and that community's environment. (e.g. aquatic ecosystems, desert ecosystems...)
  13. What are consumers?
    Consumers are organisms who depend on other organisms to survive, and cannot make their own food. (e.g. animals, microorganisms, fungi)
  14. What is the definition of a producer?
    Producers are organisms, such as plants, who can produce their own food to feed themselves, instead of having to take in other living organisms.
  15. Definition of abiotic?
    The non-living parts of an ecosystem (e.g. rocks, water, oxygen, light, chemical nutrients, soil...). Without abiotic parts in an ecosystem, many organisms cannot survive.
  16. Definition of biotic?
    The living parts of an ecosystem (e.g. plants, animals microorganisms, fungi). Characteristics include all of the interactions among the living things in the ecosystem.
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SNC1D - Chapter 1 Definitions
Definitions for chapter 1.
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