Immunology test

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kaitiek09
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283404
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Immunology test
Updated:
2014-09-24 17:14:50
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sfsu immuno
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sfsu immunology test
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  1. TIME OF INITIAL RESPONSE:
    INNATE
    RESPONSE IS IMMEDIATE, FROM MINUTES TO HOURS
  2. TIIME OF INITIAL RESPONSE: ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    RESPONSE TAKES 3-7 DAYS
  3. INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE :
    PHASE
    TIME OF RESPONSE
    DURATION OF RESPONSE
    • INFLAMMATION, COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION, PHAGOCYTOSIS, AND DESTRUCTION OF PATHOGEN
    • MIN
    • DAYS
  4. ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE 1:
    PHASE
    TIME OF RESPONSE
    DURATION OF RESPONSE
    • INTERACT BETWEEN AG PRESENTING DEND AND AG SPEC T CELLS, RECOGNITION OF AG, ADHESION, CO-STIM, T PROLIF AND DIFFERENTIATION
    • HOURS
    • DAYS
  5. ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE 2:
    PHASE
    TIME OF RESPONSE
    DURATION OF RESPONSE
    • ACTIVATION OF AG SPECIFIC B CELLS
    • HOURS
    • DAYS
  6. ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE 3:
    PHASE
    TIME OF RESPONSE
    DURATION OF RESPONSE
    • FORMATION OF EFFECTOR AND MEM T CELLS
    • DAYS
    • WEEKS
  7. ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE 4:
    PHASE
    TIME OF RESPONSE
    DURATION OF RESPONSE
    • INTERACT OF T WITH B, FORM GERMINAL CENTER. FORM EFFECTOR B (PLASMA) AND MEM B, PRODUCT OF ANTIBOD
    • DAYS
    • WEEKS
  8. ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE 5:
    PHASE
    TIME OF RESPONSE
    DURATION OF RESPONSE
    • EMIGRATION OF EFFECTOR LYMPHOC FROM PERIPH LYMPHOID ORGANS
    • FEW DAYS
    • WEEKS
  9. ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE 6:
    PHASE
    TIME OF RESPONSE
    DURATION OF RESPONSE
    • EFFECT CELLS AND ANTIBOD ELIMINATE PATHO
    • FEW DAYS
    • WEEKS
  10. CELLS AND MOLECULAR COMPO
    INNATE IMMUNITY 8
    • MACRO
    • NEU
    • EOSIN
    • BASO
    • DEND
    • NK
    • COMPLE
    • CYTOKIN
  11. CELLS AND MOLECULAR COMPO
    ADAP IMMUN 4
    • T LYMP
    • B LYMP
    • ANTIBOD
    • CYTOKIN
  12. WHAT DETERMINE WHAT KIND OF BLOOD CELLS AN HSC BECOMES?
    CYTOKINES
  13. HOW CYTOKINES DETERMINE THE KIND OF BLOOD A HSC BECOMES
    DIFF CYTO BIND TO MEMBRANE RECEPTORS ON IMMATURE CELLS AN SENDS A SIGNAL TO THE NUCLEUS WHICH TURNS GENES ON AND OFF. THEN UNDERGOES TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION TO BECOME A SPECIFIC CELL
  14. 4 STEPS OF MOLECULES THAT MEDIATE LYMPH HOMING
    • ROLLING
    • CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR ENGAGEMENT
    • FIRM ADHESION
    • DIAPEDESIS
  15. ROLLING IS MEDIATED BY 2
    • L SELECTIN
    • VASCULAR ADDRESSINS
  16. CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR ENGAGEMENT IS MEDIATED BY 2
    • CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS
    • CHEMOKINE
  17. FIRM ADHESION IS MEDIATED BY 2
    • INTEGRINS
    • IG-CAMS
  18. DIAPEDESIS IS MEDIATED BY 2
    • UNKNOWN CELL ADHESION MOLECULES
    • CHEMOKINES
  19. HEMATOPOIESIS STEM CELLS HAVE 3 CHARACTERISTICS
    • CAPABLE OF DIVIDING AND RENEWING THEMSELVES FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME
    • UNSPECIALIZED
    • GIVE RISE TO SPECIALIZED CELL TYPES
  20. HEMTAPO OCCURS IN BONE MARROW ALONG WITH ITS DIFFERENTIATION OF CELLS
  21. HEMATO DEF
    THE PROCESS BY WHICH ALL OF THE BLOOD CELLS ARE GENERATED FROM THE SAME HEMAT STEM CELL
  22. IF NUMBER OF CELLS ARE NOT IN NORMAL RANGE THEN THAT MEANS AN INFECTON HAS OCCURED
  23. T AND B CELLS LOOK THE SAME UNTIL THEY BECOME ACTIVATED THEN B BECOMES A PLASMA CELL
    • ARE THE SOLE SOURCE OF ANTIBOD
    • BAS/ESIN/NEU ARE IN BLOOD EXCEPT WHEN FIGHTING INFECTION
  24. ALL BLOOD CELLS THAT MAKE UP THE IMMUNE SYSTEM DERIVE WHICH 2 LINEAGES
    • LYMPHOID
    • MYLOID
  25. antibodies
    proteins that bind specifically to the toxins and neutralize their activity
  26. IR
    responses we make against infection by potential pathogens
  27. adaptive IR
    specific IR that causes a production of antibodie against a particular pathogen or its products
  28. innate IR
    immediate availability to combat a wide range of pathogens but does not lead to long lasting immunity, not specific
  29. these cells are always present and ready to act. occurs with the innate IR
    macro
  30. takes time to develop and is highly specific
    adaptive IR
  31. antigens
    stimulate antibody generation, any substance that can be recognized and responded to by the adaptive IS
  32. most infections can be handled by innate immunity. but those that cant, the innate triggers an adaptive response. Once it is taken care of it is followed by immunological memory which prevents diseases from reinfecting
  33. WBC = lympho
  34. lymphocytes function
    recognize and target patho microorganisms (need innate to initiate and mount their target)
  35. 4 main tasks to protect the individual effectively against diseases
    • immunological recognition
    • immune effector functions
    • immune regulation
    • immunological mem
  36. immunological recognition
    define and process
    • presence of infection detected
    • WBC of innate cause immediate response by lymph of adaptive IS
  37. immune effector functions
    defined and function
    • contain infection and eliminate completely
    • play of complement system of blood pro, antibody produced by lymph, and destructive capacities of lymph. IR must be contained so no damage is done to the body
  38. immune regulation
    define and function
    • ability of the immune system to self regulate
    • failure to reg could cause conditions such as auto immune response
  39. immunological memory
    define and function
    • protect the individual against reoccurring disease due to same patho
    • after being infected and cured, the next time it occurs it will have an immediate and stronger response
  40. initial defenses against infection are physical and chemical barriers, once barriers are overcame the components of the IS come into play
  41. adaptive IS is more effective because of specific recognition functions of lympho. It can recognize and respond to individual antigens by antigen receptors on lymph surface
  42. WBC = leukocytes
  43. lymphatic system
    drains extracellular fluid and free cells from tissues, transports them as lymph and then back into the blood stream
  44. function of mature leuko
    they guard the peripheral tissues, some reside there in the tissues while others circulate in the blood and the lymph system
  45. are a mature form of monocytes and in all tissues of the body
    macrophages
  46. 3 types of phago in the IS
    mono + macro,granul, and dend
  47. effector lympho
    met their Ag, become activated and differentiated into fully functional lympho
  48. antigens bind to the b cell receptor on the B surface = plasma
    produce antibod which is a secreted form of B cell recptor and have Ag specificity
  49. antibody molecules class
    immunoglobulins
  50. antigen receptor of B/T lymph is membraned immunoglobulin or surface immu
  51. 3 classes of effector T cell functions
    • killing
    • activation
    • regulation
  52. effector T cells are 3 types
    • cytotoxic
    • helper
    • regulatory
  53. cytotoxic cells
    kills cells that are infected
  54. helper t cells
    provide additional signals that influence the behavior and activity of other cells
  55. example of how helper t cells work
    provide sig to Ag stimulated B cells that influence their production of antibod and to macro that allow them to become more efficient at killing engulfed patho
  56. regulatory t cells
    supress the activity of other lymph and help to control IR
  57. mem cells
    t/b activated responsible for long last immunity that follows exposure to disease or vaccination

    **will diff into effect on second exposure to specific Ag**
  58. lymphocytes circulate in the blood and lymph and are mostly found in
    lymph tissue (organs)
  59. primary lymph organs
    where lymph are generated
  60. secondary lymph organs
    mature naive lympho are maintained and AIS are initiated
  61. what are the central lymphoid organs 2
    secondary 3
    • BM, thymus
    • lymph, spleed, and mucosal lymph tissue (gut,nasal, and resp)
  62. T cells go to thymus to mature, b cells mature in BM
  63. AIR is initiated f a lymph meets its Ag once the mature naive lymph enter the blood stream and circu through peripheral lymph tissue
  64. macrophages recognize bac by means of receptors that bind to the srface of the bac. the engagement triggers the macro to engulf and degrade bac and secrete cyto and chemokines
  65. cytokine
    general name for any protein that is secreted by cells and affects behavior of cells bearing appropriate receptors 
  66. chemokines
    secreted proteins that act as chemoattractants attracting cells bearing chemokine receptors
  67. inflammation
    a process initiated by cyto and chemo released by activated macrophages
  68. inflammation recruits cells from blood into infected tissues that help to destroy the pathogen
    it increases the flow of lymph carrying microbes and Ag presenting from infected tissue to nearby lymphoid tissue where activation of lymphocytes and initiation of AIR which recruits the components of the AIS.
  69. local inflammation and phago of invading bact can be triggered by the activation of plasma proteins known as
    complement
  70. activation of the compliment system leads to reactions that coat the microbes so when the coating from the compliment is recogized by specific complement receptors then it can be uptaken by phago and destroyed
  71. produce cytkines in repsonse to infection
    endothelial cells
  72. the cytokines produce changes in adhesive proper of the endothelial cells  while causing circulating leuko to stick to endo cells and migrte between them into th site of infection
  73. 2 cell types seen in the initial phase of inflam respone and are also known as inflammatory cells
    • mac
    • neutro
  74. these are known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes beause of their oddly shaped nucle
    granu
  75. granul characteristics 3
    • short lived
    • produce in large amounts during IR, where they leave the blood and go to site of infections
    • baso/neutro/eusi
  76. neutrophil characters 2
    • numerous and most important in IIR
    • phagocytize microorgan in intracell vesicles using enzymes and antimicrob substances stored in granules
  77. eosino and baso characters 4
    • less abudant
    • granules with enzymes and toxic pro that are released when cells are active
    • contrbute to inflammatory reactions which can be damaging
    • defend against parasites that are too large to be ingeted my macro/neut
  78. mast characters 3
    • differentiate in tissues
    • help with allergic response
    • large granues in cyto are release when activated which helps to induce inflammation
  79. dendritic characters 4
    • immature cells migrate through blood from BM to enter tissue
    • undergo phago and macropino (extracell fluid)
    • pathogen stimulates the cells to mature and activates T lymph
    • provide signals that are needed to activate t lymph that are encountering their specific Ag for the first time (APC)
  80. mature dend activate T lymph by displaying Ag derived from the patho on their surface in which it activates the Ag receptor of a T lymph
  81. macro can also act as APC but dend cells are specialized in initiating adaptive immune responses
  82. common lymphoid progenitor
    in the BM, gives rise to Ag specific lymphocytes of the AIS and also to a type of lympho that responds to the presence of infections but is not specific for Ag
  83. NK characters 2
    • recognize and kill some abnormal cells
    • holds vital organs in check before AI kicks in
  84. antigen specific lympho = AI
  85. lympho make AI possible through Ag receptors on their surface which recognize and bind the Ag
  86. lympho drain extracell fluid from periph tissue through the lymph nodes and into the thoracic duct which empties into left subclavian vein. The fluid was known as lymph
  87. lymph
    carries Ag taken up by dend cells and macro to the lymph  nodes while also recirculating lymphocy from the lymph node back into the blood
  88. lymphoid tissue is also associated with other mucosa
  89. lymph nodes
    definition and function
    • organized lymph organs located at points of convergence of vessels of the lymph system
    • extensive system that collects extracell fluid from tissues and returns it to the blood
  90. The epithelium provides the first line of defense against infection
  91. how epithelial defends against infection
    mechanical
    4 + location
    • epithel joined by tight junc - all
    • flow of air or fluid -skin/gut
    • movement of mucus by cilia - lung
    • tears/nasal cilia - E/N/O cavity
  92. how epithelial defends against infection
    chemical
    9 + location
    • fatty acids - skin
    • B defensins/lamellar bodies/cathelicidin - skin
    • low ph - gut
    • A defensins/lecticidines/cathelicidin - gut
    • pulmonary surfactant - lungsu
    • A def/cathe - lungs 
    • enzymes in tears/saliva - e,n,o 
    • Histins/B defensins
  93. how epithelial defends against infection 
    Microbial
     1+location
    Normal microbiota all

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