Acoustic distractions (clearing throat, coughing, people talking, construction outside).
Spatial distractions: Stage between teacher and student, being too far away.
Time distractions: Looking at clock, Listening therapeutically, but instead of listening well you keep checking your watch because you have to go soon.
Fatigue distractions: Yawning, eyes closing, head nodding.
Stress: Tests, deadlines, other things going on in your life that are heavy on your mind.
Barriers to Listening: Perception of Others
Status: Higher ranks, more status, usually don’t listen as well.
Stereotypes: Requiring a specific gender in a teacher. “I learn better from male/female teachers.” Accents, Religion, Race
All of these might make us filter information we choose to accept/receive.
Barriers to Listening: Personal
Defensiveness: Veiled criticisms, Covering our “position” i.e. More concerned with how we are going to respond instead of what is being said. People tend to not listen very well when hearing things we can improve.Others tend to only focus on what can be improved and not what was done well.
Experiential superiority: No one knows better. “Excuse me?! I’m the expert.” “Who are you to tell me…” Superiority complex influences how people listen. Pride.
Pseudo Listening: Pretending to listen“Uh-huh”, nodding“Did you hear anything I just talked about?” (repeat something from the very beginning of conversation) ← not listening. Predetermining what will be said. Not listening to what is being said but trying to predict what will be said. Laziness. Not putting forth effort.
“Uh-huh”, nodding, shaking head, purposefully to give feedback and signs that you are following, not as a mask to hide the fact you are not listening.
Takeaway from Listening?
Summarize what the other said.
Traits and talents are given
Look for validation
Looking for a really good score, trying to validate identity as a naturally smart student.
If poor score, “Maybe I’m not cut out for this, my identty has been crushed.”
If I don’t do well, maybe I didn’t work hard enough or studied incorrectly. Learning opportunity.
Focus on effort and learning, growing from mistakes.
Definition of Communication
Context + Messages = Meaning
Meanings do not live in words. Words are arbitrary symbols for what they represent (chair). We can change that.
The meanings are in people. “Jib” means something that is small, or sailing, depending on your background/who you are.
List the Communication Myths.
Everyone is a communciation expert
Communication will solve any problems
More communication is always better.
Communication can break down.
Communication is inherently good.
Communication is spelled with an “s”.
What is Communication Competence?
The balance of Task Effectiveness and Relational Appropriateness.
What is Identity?
Who we are
Identified by yourself
Identified by others
^^ This influences how you see yourself and perceive your own identity.
Any explanation of behavior; the answer to a "why" question.
“There was a wreck on the side of the road because…”
Self-Serving Bias: failures are external causes, successes are internal causes.
Fundamental Attribution Error: in others, failures are internal causes and successes are external.
How We Perceive Ourselves
Awareness and Management of Self-Concept
Self-fulfilling Prophecy: Talk to yourself positively. The more you do, the more it will become reality.
Managing Our Image Through Face, what are the different Face elements?
Face: A Person’s desired public image
Facework: the behaviors people use to establish and maintain their desired public image with others. "I love cats." Don't immediately say "I hate cats."
Face needs: important components of one’s desired public image.
Face threats: Behavior that threatens one or more face needs.
Managing Our Image Through Face, what are the different Face elements?
Language has layers of meaning.
Language varies in clarity.
Language is bound by context and culture.
Snow, Eskimos have 50+ words for it. Arizona probably has 1 or 2.
A predisposition to attribute positive qualities to physically attractive people.
More attractive people are evaluated more positively, perceived as being friendlier, better employees, better students
Influences: Perceptions of personality, intelligence, guilt
Barriers to Listening
Perceptions of Others
A process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages in specific contexts, influenced by individual and social forces, and embedded in culture.
The building blocks of communication events.
Taking ideas and converting them into messages.
Receiving a message and interpreting its meaning.
Something that represents something else and conveys meaning.
The concrete meaning of the message, and the meanings suggested by or associated with the message and the emotions triggered by it.
What a message conveys about the relationship between parties.
The physical surroundings of a communication event.
The people interacting during communication.
The means through which a message is transmitted.
Any stimulus that can interfere with, or degrade, the quality of a message.
The response to a message.
Synergetic model of communication
A transactional model based on the roles individual and societal forces, contexts, and culture play in the communication process.
Field of Experience
The education, life events, and cultural background that a communicator possesses.
Learned patterns of perceptions, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people.
Standards of what is right and wrong, good and bad, moral and immoral.
the standards of right and wrong that one applies to messages that are sent and received.
pertaining to the belief that there is a single correct moral standard that holds for everyone, everywhere, every time.
Pertaining to the belief that moral behavior varies among individuals, groups, and cultures and across situations.
belief system that represents a particular worldview.
the specific ways that scholars collect and analyze data which they then use to prove or disprove their theories.
Social science approach
contemporary term for the behaviorist approach
the focus on the study of behavior as a science.
relating to everyday, real-life situations, such as a classroom, cafe, or shopping mall.
an interaction pattern in which one partner criticizes or tries to change the other partner, who responds by becoming defense and then disengaging -- either psychologically or physically.
scholars who study the art of public speaking and the art of persuasion.
scholars in the 19th century who promoted the study of the mechanics of public speaking, including proper pronunciation, grammar, and gestures.
an emotional tie, such as the closeness young children develop with their caregivers.
contemporary term for humanistic (rhetorical) study.
communication that is used to influence the attitudes or behaviors of others; the art of persuasion.
a system of thought that celebrates human nature and its potential.
approach to understanding communication that focuses on specific aspects of the content of a text or a group of texts.
relating to studies in which researchers actively engage with participants.
used by researchers to examine texts or public speeches as they occur in society with the aim of interpreting textual meaning.
the idea that people's self-images arise primarily from the ways that others view them and from the many messages they have received from others about who they are.
the idea that self-image results from the image others reflect back to an individual.
the important people in an individual's life whose opinions and behavior influence the various aspects of identity.
the collection of roles, rules, norms, beliefs, and attitudes endorsed by the community in which a person lives.
process in which reminding individuals of stereotypical expectations regarding important identities can impact their performance.
the understanding of one's unique characteristics as well as the similarities to, and differences from, others.
part of one's self-concept; arises out of how one perceives and interprets reflected appraisals and social comparisons.
treating others, and expecting to be treated, with respect and dignity.
performance of identity
the process or means by which we show the world who we think we are.
performing scripts deemed proper for particular identities.
the expectation that one will perform in a particular way because of the social role occupied.
subject to change
identification with a particular racial group.
one who self-identifies as having more than one racial identity.
a person's citizenship
identification with a particular group with which one shares some or all of these characteristics: national or tribal affiliation, religious beliefs, language, and/or cultural and traditional origins and background.
how and to what extend one identifies with the social construction of masculinity and femininity.
a combination of self-perception of age along with what others understand age to mean.
social class identity
an informal ranking of people in a culture based on their income, occupational, education, dwelling, child-rearing habits, and other factors.
which of the various categories of sexuality one identifies with.
identification with physical or mental impairment that substantially impact everyday life.
aspect of identity defined by one's spiritual beliefs.
the process of choosing which sensory information to focus on.
the process by which one recognizes what sensory input represents.
the act of assigning meaning to sensory information.
consciously or unconsciously attending to just a narrow range of the full array of sensory information available.
the ability to form mental models of the world.
cognitive structures that represent an individual's understanding of a concept or person.
(kind of like a stereotype)
an idealized schema
Many people's prototypical idea of a professor is a person who is male, has white hair and perhaps a bard, and wears a tweed jacket with leather patches.
a relatively fixed sequence of events that functions as a guide or template for communication or behavior.
a cognitive process used to organize information by placing it into larger groupings of information
a name assigned to a category based on one's perception of the category.
creating schemas that overgeneralize attributes of a specific group.
a structure that shapes how people interpret their perceptions.
If you are someone who frames the world as dangerous, you are likely to interpret that banging on your window as an indication of someone trying to break in.
explanation of the processes we use to judge our own and other's behavior.
the tendency to attribute one's own negative behavior to external causes and one's positive actions to internal states.
the tendency to give one's self more credit than is due when good things happen and to accept too little responsibility for those things that go wrong.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to attribute other's negative behavior to internal causes and their positive behaviors to external causes.
categories people develop to help them organize information.
the degree to which a person's constructs are detailed, involved, or numerous.
the tendency to view one's own group as the standard against which all other groups are judged.
experiencing aversive or negative feelings toward a group as a whole or toward an individual because she or he belongs to a group.
the role prejudice plays in protecting individuals' sense of self-worth.
the role played by prejudice in allowing people to view their own values, norms, and cultural practices as appropriate and correct.
the process by which historical events influence the perceptions of people who grew up in a given generation and time period.
the specific position or positions one holds in a society.
use of language to obtain what you need or desire.
use of language to control or regulate the behaviors of others.
use of language to communicate information or report facts.
use of language to acquire knowledge and understanding.
use of language to establish and define social relationships.
use of language to express individuality and personality.
use of language to express oneself artistically or creatively.
the study of the sounds that compose individual languages and how those sounds communicate meaning.
the rules that govern word order.
the study of meaning.
field of study that emphasizes how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goals.
speech act theory
branch of pragmatics that suggests that when people communicate they do not just say things, they also do things with their words.
"I bet you ten dollars the Yankees win the World Series." <-- you are entering into an agreement that will result in an exchange of money.
those who argue that any idea can be expressed in any language and that the structure and vocabulary of the language do not influence the speaker's perception of the world.
those who argue that language serves not only as a way for us to voice our ideas but "is itself the shaper of ideas, the guide for the individual's mental activity."
Idea that the language people speak determines the way they see the world (a relativist perspective).
explores the role of power in daily interactions.
use of verbal communication to attack others based upon some social category
comments that reject or invalidate a positive or negative self-image of our conversational partners.
"I got an A on my test!"
"It must have been an easy test."
comments that validate positive self-images of others.
nonverbal communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement, facial expressions, and eye behavior.
signals that accompany speech to clarify or emphasize the verbal messages.
gestures that stand for a specific verbal meaning
gestures used to manage emotions.
gestures used to control conversation.
how close or involved people appear to be with each other.
the degree of tension displayed by one's body.
all aspects of spoken language except the words themselves; includes rate, volume, pitch, stress.
qualities such as speed, pitch, rhythm, vocal range, and articulation that make up the "music" of the human voice.
uttered sounds that do not have the structure of language.
the study of the way people use time as a message.
the study of how people use spatial cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships, to communicate.
engaging in one task or behavior at a time.
engaging in multiple activities simultaneously.
0 to 18 inches
18 inches to 4 feet
4 to 12 feet
12 to 25 feet
the study of the communicative function of touch
type of touch used by certain workers, such as dentists, hairstylists, and hospice workers, as part of their livelihood; also known as functional touch.
the least intimate type of touch; used by certain workers such as dentists, hairstylists, hospice workers, as part of their livelihood. Also known as professional touch.
touch that is part of the daily interaction in the US; it is more intimate than professional touch but is still impersonal.
touch that is more intimate than social touch and usually conveys warmth, closeness, and caring.
the touch most often used with one's romantic partners and family.
a type of touch used to establish dominance and power.
clothing and other accessories
using nonverbal behaviors to help clarify verbal messages and reveal attitudes and moods.
using nonverbal behaviors to help manage conversational interaction.
expressing and managing intimacy
using nonverbal behaviors to help convey attraction and closeness.
establishing social control
using nonverbal behavior to exercise influence over other people.
using nonverbal behavior to signal close involvement between people in impersonal relationships and contexts.
verbal and nonverbal messages that express the same meaning.
verbal and nonverbal messages that send conflicting messages.
the process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages.
the stage of listening most people refer to as "hearing"; when listeners pick up the sound waves directed toward them.
interpreting the messages associated with sounds or what the sounds mean.
assessing your reaction to a message
showing others how you regard their message.
a set of attitudes, beliefs, and predispositions about the how, where, when, who, and what of the information receiving and encoding process.
listening style that reflects a preference for error-free and well-organized speaking.
listening skills t hat are useful in situations requiring attention to content.
a listening style that reflects an interest in detailed and complex information, simply for the content itself.
listening skills that are useful in a wide variety of situations -- particularly those involving persuasive speaking.
a listening style that is associated with friendly, open communication and an interest in establishing ties with others.
listening skills focused not only on understanding information but also "listening" to others' feelings.
a listening style that prefers brief, concise speech.