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Describe a growth mindset.
Challenging, hardworking, tenacious
"I can get better".
Describe a fixed mindset.
"You're so smart!"
Creates an identity, anger/frustration when wrong.
Communication addresses _______ needs.
Communication fills _______ needs.
The way I describe myself is based on how other people perceive me, which is how I perceive myself. This is an example of "communication fills _______ needs."
Communication serves _______ needs.
What is the definition of communication?
context + message = meaning
The same message in different _______ has different meanings. What is an example?
"I love you" to a waitress vs. "I love you" to your spouse.
Communication relies on multiple _______.
Communication passes through _______ _______.
People give communication its meaning. The meaning isn't in the words, it's in _______.
Communication has _______ meanings and _______ implications. Give an example.
- "What's wrong?"
- "Nothing" <-- literal meaning
- "Something is wrong." <-- relational meaning
Communication sends messages, whether _______ or _______.
People believe _______ messages more than _______ messages.
Communication is governed by _______ rules and _______ rules. Give an example of each.
- explicit; implicit
- Syllabus <-- explicit
- Raising hand to speak <-- implicit
Communication competence is the balance of _______ _______ and _______ _______.
task effectiveness; relational appropriateness
Every communication interaction is based on _______.
Communication interactions create and shape _______.
_______ plays an important role in intercultural communication.
What is identity?
- who you are
- social categories
- - identified by yourself
- - identified by others
Identities exist at the _______ and _______ levels.
What is an example of an individual level of an identity? What would bring it to a societal/social level?
Sports fan, athlete is individual level.
The minute you specify a team, it becomes societal identity/social identity.
Identity is both fixed and _______. Give an example of each.
- fixed: male/female
- dynamic: 10 yr. Male vs 20 yr. male vs. 50 yr. male
Identities must be understood in terms of the historical, social and _______ environments. Every single action has a history/build-up.
Identities are complex and _______.
Identity is linked directly to culture. Define culture.
The totality of learned, shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another.
What are some components of cultures?
- They vary in their symbols (boy scouts, rank/badges, "service", "camping"
- They vary in their languages
- They vary in their values "scout law"
- They vary in their norms
- They have distinctive features
Be _______ about cultural differences.
The belief that you are superior to any other culture.
What are different communication codes?
- Idioms - raining cats and gots, shake a leg, break a leg
Why is perception important?
- It influences how we understand the world.
- It influences how we respond to the world.
- It influences relationship choices
- It drives consumption (clothes, makeup, cars)
Define the process of selection.
- 1) selection: collect small amount of data "He's not responding to my text."
- 2) organization: might not be accurate "my roommate is rude."
- 3) interpretation: formulate story "He's a rude person, this won't end well, he never does what I ask."
Name the influences of perception.
- Cultures and Co-cultures
- Primacy and receny (what we pay most attention to, first impressions)
- Perceptual sets
What is an attribution?
- An explanation of behavior
- The answer to a "why" question
What is self-serving bias?
The tendency to attribute your own success to stable internal causes and one's failures to unstable external causes.
I got a flat tire, alarm didn't go off, bad teacher.
What is the Fundamental Attribution Error?
The tendency to attribute others' behaviors to internal rather than external causes.
He's lazy, not punctual, not taking education seriously.
Do not give benefit of the doubt
Combat this and you will be happier in relationships and life in general.
What is self concept?
- Also known as our identity
- Partly subjective
More competent communicator are better at _______ _______.
What is self-fulfilling prophecy?
- "I'm not good at math"
- As a result, they don't study as hard
- They get a bad grade as a result
A person's desired public image.
Define face work.
The behaviors people use to establish and maintain their desired public image with others.
Define face needs.
Important components of one's desired public image.
define face threat
Any behavior that threatens one or more face needs.
- "I don't think I got the right amount of change." (relational appropriateness)
- "You suck at counting change." (task effective)
In verbal communication, how is meaning derived?
- Combining words and pronunciation.
- Messages and the words in those messages
- The meaning is not in the word, it's in the people.
Define linguistic variation.
The way I make meaning out of something may be different than the way you make meaning out of something.
A rule-guided system of symbols that allows us to translate messages into meaning.
What are is the instrumental function of language?
- It plays a role in us having a goal in life.
- We have a goal and language helps us with that goal
- If I want to have a party, one function is to invite people
What is the regulatory function of language?
- "If you could bring a side-dish, that would be great."
- I'm regulating their behavior with my words, in this case what it is they should bring.
What is the informative function of language?
- Come over at 5:00
- the game starts at 7
- this is where I live
- sharing information, giving information on where it is going to be and how to get there.
What is the heuristic function of language?
- Sharing knowledge
- “What time do you think we should have people over?”
- “Maybe we should wait until 5:00 because…”
- From that shared knowledge, we figure out what might work best.
What is the interactional function of language?
- Back and Forth
- I speak to someone, they speak back to me
- I ask them to RSVP, they respond
What is the personal language function of language?
- Within my group of friends, we have a certain way of communicating or a certain word we use.
- Instead of football we might refer to it as something else
What is the imaginative function of language?
I could get more creative with my invitation.
What does "Language is symbolic" mean?
- We have words and those words don’t necessarily equal that object.
- Symbolic of what a chair actually is. The object has no tie to the letters c h a i r, it's purely symbolic.
- The meanings live within people not within the object itself.
List and describe the rules by which language is governed.
- Phonological rules: The way we sound out the word, the pronunciation
- Syntactic rules: Govern the order in which words appear in a sentence. Spanish "casa verde" english "green house".
- Semantic rules: What is the meaning you draw from that word? Chair draws the meaning of an object you sit on.
- Pragmatic rules: when I extend my hand to greet you, common courtesies.
Describe denotative meaning.
- The defintion meaning, the "dictionary" meaning.
- "ASU won their game last week."
- We know ASU won.
Describe connotative meaning.
- "ASU trampled their opponent last week."
- Loaded language
- They won by a very large margin, higher emotion.
What's the difference between abstract words and concrete words?
- abstract: car
- concrete: make, model, color, year
What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
- List the number of words you can think of to describe snow
- Language shapes your reality, and your reality shapes your language
- Arizonans might not have as many names for snow as some other place like Nebraska. We don’t see it that often, our reality is shaping our language.
- Eskimos have over 50 words for snow.
- Their reality of living with snow shapes their language
- How powdery it is, how moist it is, how much ice is involved, they have a word for each.
- Their language shapes their reality too, because they can discern the difference between different kinds of snow.
- Those who deal more with nail polish, more concerned with fashion, or artists for example would have a wider range of color vocabulary than those that are not.
Define strategic ambiguity.
- If I were asked to write a letter of recommendation for someone who I feel might not deserve it, I might be strategically ambiguous:
- Not: “She’s a very good worker”,
- instead: “I’ve observed her working frequently.”
What is persuasion?
Shapes the way we can motivate others.
What is the anchor and contract method?
- Now that you are an alumni, will you donate to the university?
- They can use their language to help motivate you by giving you an anchor and a contract:
- “Most people are giving $500, and that would be a great start for you.
- ”$500 is the anchor“ But if you wanted to give $5, that’d be great.”
- $5 is the contract
- “What is expected”
- Much more likely to pay $5 than $0 this way.
What is the norm of reciprocity?
Jerry in seinfeld received a free suit, so when he and the giver went to dinner, he didn’t want Jerry to order soup because it isn’t a “meal”, and he felt he could say that because he gave him a suit.
What is the Communication Accommodation Theory?
- Chemical engineer talking to you using a bunch of jargon about what they do for a living
- The same person could be able to accommodate your lack of vocabulary int he field by speaking at an appropriate level
- As speakers we match the language and the style with whom we are speaking. We sync the levels of “uh huh” to gauge our effectiveness of our communication.
Replace “but” with _______.
Define nonverbal communication.
Behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words.
True or false: Nonverbal communication includes sign language, written words, and words transferred electronically.
Some communication happens in channel lean and channel rich, text messages for example are channel lean environments.
List all the forms of communication nonverbal communication may include.
- Body language
True or false: non verbal communication often conveys more than verbal communication.
65%-70% of communication comes from nonverbal communication.
What are the four facial displays of emotion expressed across cultures?
- (Some cultures might not express certain ones as often as others.)
The study of eye behavior
Any gesture with a direct verbal translation.
If I wave, it means “hi”, if I wave again as I’m leaving, it means “bye”.
Gestures that go along with a verbal message to clarify it.
Pointing in a direction when somebody asks for a location.
Gestures that control the flow of conversation
- * Starting to walk away when you want to end a conversation.
- * Knodding head.
(Things that are trying to regulate the conversation)
Gestures that satisfy a personal need.
Some people will play with hair, hand in pockets, play with a necklace.
The study of the communicative function of touch.
(Haptics) Patterns of touch vary with...
- Power: Supervisors are more likely to touch on shoulder or extend a hand, or shake hand and grab on top of hand also.
- Culture: US Culture female/female friendships, female/male friendships, share the same amount of touch. India culture men hold men’s hands walking down the street.
- Pitch: Lying always with a high-pitch voice for example, “I’m having a great time!”
- Silence: The way we use silence changes depending on culture.
- Smell sensory
- One of the only senses that physically touches the brain, which is why aromas bring back such powerful memories.
- Sexual attraction: We look for people who smell significantly different to help the gene pool.
- Intimate space 0 to 18 inches
- Personal space 1.5 to 5 feet
- Social 5 to 7 feet
- Women tend to be more comfortable with the boundaries being crossed, men are more commonly going to violate others’ personal space.
A predisposition to attribute positive qualities to physically attractive people.
- The use of time: Tell certain people to be there 30 minutes before actual time because you know they will be late and thus will be on time.
- Polychronic: multitaskers
- Monochronic: synchronous
- Culture: “Be there at 4” some cultures it’s acceptable to show up at 8.
- Power: If presendent of the meeting is not there you’re probably going to wait to have the meeting. If the secretary isn’t there probably won’t wait.
- Clothing and other accessories
- An office space: Gather messages and context by surrounding environment
- Jewelry: Draw meaning from a cross around somebody’s neck. Wedding bands. Glasses. Height of heels, size of earrings.
The active, psychological process of constructing meaning from messages.
Types of Listening
- Discriminatory: Distinguish aural stimuli. Hearing what you want to hear, not paying attention to environment noises, block them out and listen to one stimulant.
- Comprehensive: Gain understanding. We are comprehensively listening in lecture.
- Therapeutic: Allow another to talk through a problem.
- Critical: Deciding to accept or reject a message. You are deciding how your own perspectives fit with that message.
- Appreciative: Enjoyment; Music, movies, nature, storytelling
Barriers to Listening: Physical and Psychological
- Acoustic distractions (clearing throat, coughing, people talking, construction outside).
- Spatial distractions: Stage between teacher and student, being too far away.
- Time distractions: Looking at clock, Listening therapeutically, but instead of listening well you keep checking your watch because you have to go soon.
- Fatigue distractions: Yawning, eyes closing, head nodding.
- Stress: Tests, deadlines, other things going on in your life that are heavy on your mind.
Barriers to Listening: Perception of Others
- Status: Higher ranks, more status, usually don’t listen as well.
- Stereotypes: Requiring a specific gender in a teacher. “I learn better from male/female teachers.” Accents, Religion, Race
- All of these might make us filter information we choose to accept/receive.
Barriers to Listening: Personal
- Defensiveness: Veiled criticisms, Covering our “position” i.e. More concerned with how we are going to respond instead of what is being said. People tend to not listen very well when hearing things we can improve.Others tend to only focus on what can be improved and not what was done well.
- Experiential superiority: No one knows better. “Excuse me?! I’m the expert.” “Who are you to tell me…” Superiority complex influences how people listen. Pride.
- Pseudo Listening: Pretending to listen“Uh-huh”, nodding“Did you hear anything I just talked about?” (repeat something from the very beginning of conversation) ← not listening. Predetermining what will be said. Not listening to what is being said but trying to predict what will be said. Laziness. Not putting forth effort.
“Uh-huh”, nodding, shaking head, purposefully to give feedback and signs that you are following, not as a mask to hide the fact you are not listening.
Takeaway from Listening?
Summarize what the other said.
- Traits and talents are given
- Look for validation
- Looking for a really good score, trying to validate identity as a naturally smart student.
- If poor score, “Maybe I’m not cut out for this, my identty has been crushed.”
- If I don’t do well, maybe I didn’t work hard enough or studied incorrectly. Learning opportunity.
- Focus on effort and learning, growing from mistakes.
Definition of Communication
- Context + Messages = Meaning
- Meanings do not live in words. Words are arbitrary symbols for what they represent (chair). We can change that.
- The meanings are in people. “Jib” means something that is small, or sailing, depending on your background/who you are.
List the Communication Myths.
- Everyone is a communciation expert
- Communication will solve any problems
- More communication is always better.
- Communication can break down.
- Communication is inherently good.
- Communication is spelled with an “s”.
What is Communication Competence?
The balance of Task Effectiveness and Relational Appropriateness.
What is Identity?
- Who we are
- Social categories
- Identified by yourself
- Identified by others
- ^^ This influences how you see yourself and perceive your own identity.
- Any explanation of behavior; the answer to a "why" question.
- “There was a wreck on the side of the road because…”
- Self-Serving Bias: failures are external causes, successes are internal causes.
- Fundamental Attribution Error: in others, failures are internal causes and successes are external.
How We Perceive Ourselves
Awareness and Management of Self-Concept
- Self-fulfilling Prophecy: Talk to yourself positively. The more you do, the more it will become reality.
Managing Our Image Through Face, what are the different Face elements?
- Face: A Person’s desired public image
- Facework: the behaviors people use to establish and maintain their desired public image with others. "I love cats." Don't immediately say "I hate cats."
- Face needs: important components of one’s desired public image.
- Face threats: Behavior that threatens one or more face needs.
Managing Our Image Through Face, what are the different Face elements?
Language has layers of meaning.
- Denotative meaning
- Connotative meaning
- Loaded language
Language varies in clarity.
- Abstract words
- Concrete words
- Language is bound by context and culture.
- Snow, Eskimos have 50+ words for it. Arizona probably has 1 or 2.
- A predisposition to attribute positive qualities to physically attractive people.
- More attractive people are evaluated more positively, perceived as being friendlier, better employees, better students
- Influences: Perceptions of personality, intelligence, guilt
Barriers to Listening
- Perceptions of Others
A process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages in specific contexts, influenced by individual and social forces, and embedded in culture.
The building blocks of communication events.
Taking ideas and converting them into messages.
Receiving a message and interpreting its meaning.
Something that represents something else and conveys meaning.
The concrete meaning of the message, and the meanings suggested by or associated with the message and the emotions triggered by it.
What a message conveys about the relationship between parties.
The physical surroundings of a communication event.
The people interacting during communication.
The means through which a message is transmitted.
Any stimulus that can interfere with, or degrade, the quality of a message.
The response to a message.
Synergetic model of communication
A transactional model based on the roles individual and societal forces, contexts, and culture play in the communication process.
Field of Experience
The education, life events, and cultural background that a communicator possesses.
Learned patterns of perceptions, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people.
Standards of what is right and wrong, good and bad, moral and immoral.
the standards of right and wrong that one applies to messages that are sent and received.
pertaining to the belief that there is a single correct moral standard that holds for everyone, everywhere, every time.
Pertaining to the belief that moral behavior varies among individuals, groups, and cultures and across situations.
belief system that represents a particular worldview.
the specific ways that scholars collect and analyze data which they then use to prove or disprove their theories.
Social science approach
contemporary term for the behaviorist approach
the focus on the study of behavior as a science.
relating to everyday, real-life situations, such as a classroom, cafe, or shopping mall.
an interaction pattern in which one partner criticizes or tries to change the other partner, who responds by becoming defense and then disengaging -- either psychologically or physically.
scholars who study the art of public speaking and the art of persuasion.
scholars in the 19th century who promoted the study of the mechanics of public speaking, including proper pronunciation, grammar, and gestures.
an emotional tie, such as the closeness young children develop with their caregivers.
contemporary term for humanistic (rhetorical) study.
communication that is used to influence the attitudes or behaviors of others; the art of persuasion.
a system of thought that celebrates human nature and its potential.
approach to understanding communication that focuses on specific aspects of the content of a text or a group of texts.
relating to studies in which researchers actively engage with participants.
used by researchers to examine texts or public speeches as they occur in society with the aim of interpreting textual meaning.
the idea that people's self-images arise primarily from the ways that others view them and from the many messages they have received from others about who they are.
the idea that self-image results from the image others reflect back to an individual.
the important people in an individual's life whose opinions and behavior influence the various aspects of identity.
the collection of roles, rules, norms, beliefs, and attitudes endorsed by the community in which a person lives.
process in which reminding individuals of stereotypical expectations regarding important identities can impact their performance.
the understanding of one's unique characteristics as well as the similarities to, and differences from, others.
part of one's self-concept; arises out of how one perceives and interprets reflected appraisals and social comparisons.
treating others, and expecting to be treated, with respect and dignity.
performance of identity
the process or means by which we show the world who we think we are.
performing scripts deemed proper for particular identities.
the expectation that one will perform in a particular way because of the social role occupied.
subject to change
identification with a particular racial group.
one who self-identifies as having more than one racial identity.
a person's citizenship
identification with a particular group with which one shares some or all of these characteristics: national or tribal affiliation, religious beliefs, language, and/or cultural and traditional origins and background.
how and to what extend one identifies with the social construction of masculinity and femininity.
a combination of self-perception of age along with what others understand age to mean.
social class identity
an informal ranking of people in a culture based on their income, occupational, education, dwelling, child-rearing habits, and other factors.
which of the various categories of sexuality one identifies with.
identification with physical or mental impairment that substantially impact everyday life.
aspect of identity defined by one's spiritual beliefs.
the process of choosing which sensory information to focus on.
the process by which one recognizes what sensory input represents.
the act of assigning meaning to sensory information.
consciously or unconsciously attending to just a narrow range of the full array of sensory information available.
the ability to form mental models of the world.
- cognitive structures that represent an individual's understanding of a concept or person.
- (kind of like a stereotype)
an idealized schema
Many people's prototypical idea of a professor is a person who is male, has white hair and perhaps a bard, and wears a tweed jacket with leather patches.
a relatively fixed sequence of events that functions as a guide or template for communication or behavior.
a cognitive process used to organize information by placing it into larger groupings of information
a name assigned to a category based on one's perception of the category.
creating schemas that overgeneralize attributes of a specific group.
- a structure that shapes how people interpret their perceptions.
- If you are someone who frames the world as dangerous, you are likely to interpret that banging on your window as an indication of someone trying to break in.
explanation of the processes we use to judge our own and other's behavior.
the tendency to attribute one's own negative behavior to external causes and one's positive actions to internal states.
the tendency to give one's self more credit than is due when good things happen and to accept too little responsibility for those things that go wrong.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to attribute other's negative behavior to internal causes and their positive behaviors to external causes.
categories people develop to help them organize information.
the degree to which a person's constructs are detailed, involved, or numerous.
the tendency to view one's own group as the standard against which all other groups are judged.
experiencing aversive or negative feelings toward a group as a whole or toward an individual because she or he belongs to a group.
the role prejudice plays in protecting individuals' sense of self-worth.
the role played by prejudice in allowing people to view their own values, norms, and cultural practices as appropriate and correct.
the process by which historical events influence the perceptions of people who grew up in a given generation and time period.
the specific position or positions one holds in a society.
use of language to obtain what you need or desire.
use of language to control or regulate the behaviors of others.
use of language to communicate information or report facts.
use of language to acquire knowledge and understanding.
use of language to establish and define social relationships.
use of language to express individuality and personality.
use of language to express oneself artistically or creatively.
the study of the sounds that compose individual languages and how those sounds communicate meaning.
the rules that govern word order.
the study of meaning.
field of study that emphasizes how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goals.
speech act theory
- branch of pragmatics that suggests that when people communicate they do not just say things, they also do things with their words.
- "I bet you ten dollars the Yankees win the World Series." <-- you are entering into an agreement that will result in an exchange of money.
those who argue that any idea can be expressed in any language and that the structure and vocabulary of the language do not influence the speaker's perception of the world.
those who argue that language serves not only as a way for us to voice our ideas but "is itself the shaper of ideas, the guide for the individual's mental activity."
Idea that the language people speak determines the way they see the world (a relativist perspective).
explores the role of power in daily interactions.
use of verbal communication to attack others based upon some social category
- comments that reject or invalidate a positive or negative self-image of our conversational partners.
- "I got an A on my test!"
- "It must have been an easy test."
comments that validate positive self-images of others.
nonverbal communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement, facial expressions, and eye behavior.
signals that accompany speech to clarify or emphasize the verbal messages.
gestures that stand for a specific verbal meaning
gestures used to manage emotions.
gestures used to control conversation.
how close or involved people appear to be with each other.
the degree of tension displayed by one's body.
all aspects of spoken language except the words themselves; includes rate, volume, pitch, stress.
qualities such as speed, pitch, rhythm, vocal range, and articulation that make up the "music" of the human voice.
uttered sounds that do not have the structure of language.
the study of the way people use time as a message.
the study of how people use spatial cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships, to communicate.
engaging in one task or behavior at a time.
engaging in multiple activities simultaneously.
0 to 18 inches
18 inches to 4 feet
4 to 12 feet
12 to 25 feet
the study of the communicative function of touch
type of touch used by certain workers, such as dentists, hairstylists, and hospice workers, as part of their livelihood; also known as functional touch.
the least intimate type of touch; used by certain workers such as dentists, hairstylists, hospice workers, as part of their livelihood. Also known as professional touch.
touch that is part of the daily interaction in the US; it is more intimate than professional touch but is still impersonal.
touch that is more intimate than social touch and usually conveys warmth, closeness, and caring.
the touch most often used with one's romantic partners and family.
a type of touch used to establish dominance and power.
clothing and other accessories
using nonverbal behaviors to help clarify verbal messages and reveal attitudes and moods.
using nonverbal behaviors to help manage conversational interaction.
expressing and managing intimacy
using nonverbal behaviors to help convey attraction and closeness.
establishing social control
using nonverbal behavior to exercise influence over other people.
using nonverbal behavior to signal close involvement between people in impersonal relationships and contexts.
verbal and nonverbal messages that express the same meaning.
verbal and nonverbal messages that send conflicting messages.
the process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages.
the stage of listening most people refer to as "hearing"; when listeners pick up the sound waves directed toward them.
interpreting the messages associated with sounds or what the sounds mean.
assessing your reaction to a message
showing others how you regard their message.
a set of attitudes, beliefs, and predispositions about the how, where, when, who, and what of the information receiving and encoding process.
listening style that reflects a preference for error-free and well-organized speaking.
listening skills t hat are useful in situations requiring attention to content.
a listening style that reflects an interest in detailed and complex information, simply for the content itself.
listening skills that are useful in a wide variety of situations -- particularly those involving persuasive speaking.
a listening style that is associated with friendly, open communication and an interest in establishing ties with others.
listening skills focused not only on understanding information but also "listening" to others' feelings.
a listening style that prefers brief, concise speech.
the everyday sounds in our environments.