Organic Chemistry A2 Part 1

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Author:
HanisAhs
ID:
283419
Filename:
Organic Chemistry A2 Part 1
Updated:
2014-09-18 06:44:02
Tags:
Organic Chemistry
Folders:
Chemistry
Description:
Reaction in Benzene, Methyl Benzene , Phenol and Iodoform
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  1. Reaction With Benzene.
    (1) Electrophilic substitution reaction with Cl2 and Br2

    • Reagent : Halogens (X2)
    • Condition: Presence of catalyst called Halogen Carrier (FeX3) at room temperature
    • Mechanism :

    • (2) Nitration.
    • Reagent: Conc. HNO3 + Conc. H2SO4
    • Condition : Reflux at 50°C - 60°C

    • Above 60°C ⇾ produce dinitrobenzene

    (3) Hydrogenation.


    • Reagent: H2 + finely divided Nickel Catalyst
    • Condition : 150°C , 20-200 atm
  2. What is Electron-donating Group and Electron-withdrawing Group?
    • Electron-Donating group - ( eg. alkyl group , -NH2 , -OH , -OCH3 )
    • ⇾ It activates the ring towards electrophilic substitution and it is in 2- and 4- directing. Therefore,increase the rate of reaction.

    • Electron-withdrawing group - ( eg. -NO2 , -CN , -CHO , -COOH , -SO3H)
    • ⇾ It deactivates the ring towards electrophilic substitution and it is in 3- directing. Therefore,decrease the rate of reaction.
  3. Reaction Of Methyl Benzene.
    (1) Halogenation

    • (a) Reagent: Cl2 + AlCl3
    •      Condition : in the Dark
    • (b) Reagent : Cl2
    •      Condition : U.V light

    • (2) Nitration
    • Reagent: Conc. HNO3 + Conc. H2SO4
    • Condition : 30°C
    • At higher temperature (>30°C) :

    • (3) Oxidation of Side Chain
    • Reagent : Alkaline KMnO(KMnO+ K2CO3) and the acidified with Dilute H2SO4
    • Condition : Reflux

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