What is Electron-donating Group and Electron-withdrawing Group?
- Electron-Donating group - ( eg. alkyl group , -NH2 , -OH , -OCH3 )
- ⇾ It activates the ring towards electrophilic substitution and it is in 2- and 4- directing. Therefore,increase the rate of reaction.
- Electron-withdrawing group - ( eg. -NO2 , -CN , -CHO , -COOH , -SO3H)
- ⇾ It deactivates the ring towards electrophilic substitution and it is in 3- directing. Therefore,decrease the rate of reaction.