Chapter 4-5 (Tissues and Integumentary)

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Chapter 4-5 (Tissues and Integumentary)
2014-09-30 21:13:18
Anatomy Physiology

Chapter 4-5 (Tissues and Integumentary)
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  1. What is histology?
    Is the study of tissues.
  2. What are the four types of tissues?
    • 1. Epithelial
    • 2. Connective tissues
    • 3. Muscle tissues
    • 4. Neural tissues
  3. What are epithelial tissues?
    Cover exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers, forms secretory glands.
  4. What are connective tissues?
    Fills internal spaces, provides structural support, stores energy.
  5. What are muscle tissues?
    Contracts to produce movement, includes skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscles.
  6. What are neural tissues?
    Conducts electrical impulses and carries information.
  7. What are the four basic divisions of epithelial tissues?
    • 1. Epithelia
    • 2. Glands
    • 3. Exocrine glands
    • 4. Endocrine glands
  8. What are exocrine glands?
    Secrete onto external surfaces or into internal passageways (ducts) that connect the exterior.
  9. What are endocrine glands?
    Secrete hormones or their inactive precursors into the interstitial fluid that then enter the bloodstream for distribution.
  10. What are the functions of epithelial tissues?
    • 1. Physical protection
    • 2. Control permeability
    • 3. Provides sensation
    • 4. Produce specialized secretions
  11. What is apical surface?
    Faces the exterior of the body or some internal space.
  12. What is the base?
    Is attached to adjacent tissues.
  13. What is a basolateral surface?
    Include both the base, where the cell attaches to underlying epithelial cells or deeper tissues and the sides where the cell contacts its neighbors.
  14. What is polarity?
    Refers to the presence of structural and functional differences between the exposed and attached surfaces.
  15. What is lumen?
    The central spaces within a duct or other internal passageway.
  16. What are the difference between stratified epithelium and simple epithelium?
    If only one layer of cells is present the layer is a simple epithelium. Stratified epitheliums contain several layers of cells and are generally located in areas that need protection from mechanical or chemical stresses.
  17. What are tight (occluding) junctions?
    Are characteristic of epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract where they form a barrier that isolates the basolateral surfaces and deeper tissues from the contents of the lumen.
  18. What is an adhesion belt?
    Locks together the terminal webs of neighboring cells, strengthening the apical region and preventing distortion and leakage at the occluding junctions.
  19. What is a gap junction?
    Permit chemical communication that coordinates the activities of adjacent cells.
  20. What are desmosomes?
    Provide firm attachment between neighboring cells by interlocking their cytoskeletons.
  21. What is a basement layer?
    Which also called the basal lamina is a noncellular structure produced by the basal surface of epithelium and underlying connective tissues.
  22. What is the clear layer?
    Contains glycoproteins and a network of fine protein filaments it is produced by the adjacent layer of epithelial cells.
  23. What is the dense layer?
    Contains bundles of coarse protein fibers. It gives the basement membrane its strength and acts as a filter that restricts diffusion between adjacent tissues and the epithelium.
  24. What is keratinized?
    On exposed body surfaces, where mechanical stress and dehydration are potential problems apical layers of epithelial cells are packed with filaments of the protein keratin. As a result, superficial layers are both tough and water resistant.
  25. What is merocrine secretions?
    Is a method of secretion in which the cell ejects materials from the secretory vesicles through exocytosis.
  26. What is apocrine secretions?
    Is a mode of secretion in which the glandular cell sheds portions of its cytoplasm.
  27. What is holocrine secretions?
    Is a form of exocrine secretion in which the secretory cell becomes swollen with vesicles and then ruptures.
  28. What is mucous (goblet) cells?
    Is a goblet shaped mucus producing unicellular gland in certain epithelia of the digestive and respiratory tracts.
  29. What is mucus?
    Mucus is a lubricant and a protective barrier and is sticky to trap foreign particles and microorganisms.
  30. What are the three basic components of connective tissues?
    • 1. Specialized cells
    • 2. Extracellular protein fibers
    • 3. A fluid known as ground substance
  31. What is the matrix?
    Is the extracellular fibers and ground substance of connective tissues.
  32. What are the six basic functions of connective tissues?
    • 1. Structural framework for the body
    • 2. Transport fluids/dissolved materials
    • 3. Protect delicate organs
    • 4. Support/connect other types of tissues
    • 5. Store energy/in the form of triglycerides
    • 6. Defend the body from microorganisms
  33. What are the three basic connective tissues?
    • 1. Connective tissue proper
    • 2. Fluid connective tissues
    • 3. Supporting connective tissues
  34. What is connective tissue proper?
    Provides a structural framework that stabilizes the relative positions of the other tissue types.
  35. What is fluid connective tissues?
    Have distinctive populations of cells suspended in a watery matrix that contains dissolved proteins.
  36. What are supporting connective tissues?
    Differ from connective tissue proper in having a less diverse cell population and a matrix containing much more densely packed fibers. Protects soft tissues and support the weight of part or all of the body.
  37. What is skeletal muscle tissue?
    Moves the body by pulling on bones of the skeleton making it possible for us to walk dance, bite and apple, or play the guitar.
  38. What is cardiac muscle tissue?
    Contractions move blood within the heart and through the blood vessels.
  39. What is smooth muscle tissue?
    Contractions move fluid and solids along the digestive tract and regulate the diameters of small arteries among other functions.
  40. What is the epidermis?
    (Above) consists of a stratified squamous epithelium; this covers the surface of the skin. The dermis is the connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis of the skin.
  41. What is the dermis?
    Is the connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis of the skin.
  42. What is the hypodermis?
    Is the layer of loose connective tissue below the dermis; also called the subcutaneous layer (not a part of the integument/integument is referred to as the skin).
  43. What are the two major components of cutaneous membrane?
    • 1. Epidermis
    • 2. Dermis
  44. What is the function of the integumentary system?
    Protects your inner organs (it’s your body’s first line of defense from the outside world).
  45. What is stratum basale?
    Single layer of proliferating columnar keratinocytes, melanocytes (pigmented cells) and Merkel cells (mechanoreceptors) also live here.
  46. What is stratum spinosum?
    The keratinocytes migrating up, they have nice oval nuclei (spiney layer).
  47. What is stratum granulosum?
    The keratinocytes are still on the move, by this point they have kertahyalin granules (grainy layer).
  48. What is albinism?
    A deficiency of absence of melanin production leads to a disorder known as albinism (they have little to no color pigmentation).
  49. What is melanin?
    Is a brown, yellow-brown or black pigment produced by melanocytes.
  50. What is a melanosomes?
    Melanocytes manufacture melanin from the amino acid tyrosine and package it in intracellular vesicles.
  51. What are melanocytes?
    Is a specialized cell in the deeper layers of the stratified squamous epithelium of the skin; responsible for the production of melanin.
  52. What is cyanosis?
    (Bluish tint of skin) is an abnormal bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated blood in vessels near the body surface.
  53. What is the papillary layer?
    Consists of a highly vascularized areolar tissue with all the typical cell types within it. This layer also contains the capillaries lymphatic vessels and sensory neurons that supply the surface of the skin.
  54. What is the reticular layer?
    Consists of an interwoven meshwork of dense irregular connective tissue containing both collagen and elastic fibers.
  55. What are free nerve endings?
    Are sensitive to touch and pressure. They are found between epidermal cells.
  56. What are tactile discs?
    Detect sensation of texture and steady pressure and are found in the deepest layer of the epidermis.
  57. What are meissner’s corpuscles?
    Detect sensation of delicate touch, pressure and vibration and are found in both dermal layers and hypodermis.
  58. What are lamellated corpuscles?
    Are sensitive to deep pressure and vibration. They are found in both the dermal layers and the hypodermis.
  59. What are ruffini corpuscles?
    Are sensitive to pressure and stretching of the skin. They are found in the reticular layer of the dermis.
  60. What are the lines of cleavage?
    Are known as tension lines and Langer lines. Most of the collagen and elastic fibers at any location are arranged in parallel bundles oriented to resist the forces applied to the skin during normal movement.
  61. What happens when surgeons make a parallel cut and a cut at the right angle? And which do surgeons choose?
    A parallel cut to the cleavage line will usually remain closed and heal with little scarring. A cut at the right angles to cleavage line will be pulled open as severed elastic fibers recoil, resulting in greater scarring. For this reason surgeons choose to make parallel incisions.
  62. What is a first-degree burn?
    Only the surface of the epidermis is affected/sunburn.
  63. What is a second-degree burn?
    The entire epidermis and perhaps some of the dermis are damaged and hair follicles glands are generally not affected but pain and swelling will occur and blisters may rupture/healing time is 1-2 weeks and scar tissues may form.
  64. What is a third-degree burn?
    Destroy the epidermis and dermis extending into the hypodermis and these types of burns are less painful because sensory nerves are destroyed/extensive third-degree burns cannot repair themselves because granulation tissue cannot form and epithelial cells are unable to cover injury.
  65. What skin functions are affected by burns?
    • 1. Fluid and electrolyte balance
    • 2. Thermoregulation
    • 3. Protection from infection
  66. What is the rule of nines?
    Estimating the percentage of the surface affected by burns.
  67. What is a skin graft?
    Areas of intact skin are transplanted to cover the site of the burn.
  68. What is a autograft?
    The graft is made with this patients own undamaged skin.
  69. What is an allograft?
    Is used when enough undamaged skin is lacking/they use frozen skin from a cadaver.
  70. What is an xenograft?
    (Animal skin) may be necessary due to rapid rejection by the immune system.
  71. What is a sebaceous gland?
    Produces secretions (sebum) that coat the hair and the adjacent skin surface.
  72. What is a hair shaft?
    Which can be seen on the surface begins depth within the hair follicle.
  73. What is a hair root?
    The portion that anchors the hair into the skin extends from the base of the hair follicle where hair production begins to the point where the hair shaft loses its connection with the walls of the follicle.
  74. What is a hair root plexus?
    Sensory nerves surrounds the base of each hair follicle as a result you can feel the movement of the shaft or even a single hair.
  75. What is a arrector pili?
    Are a smooth muscle whose contraction pulls on the follicle forcing the hair to stand erect.
  76. What are sweat glands?
    Glands produce a watery solution by merocrine secretion, flush the epidermal surface, and perform other special functions.
  77. What are merocrine sweat glands?
    Are found in most areas of the body/secretes electrolytes and controlled by nervous system and some antibacterial action.
  78. What are apocrine sweat glands?
    Have limited distribution (armpits, groin, and nipples) and produce a viscous secretion of complex composition/influenced by hormones/include ceremonious glands of the external ear and mammary glands that produce milk.
  79. What are the four phases of integument repair?
    • 1. Inflammation phase/redness
    • 2. Migratory phase/scab
    • 3. Proliferation phase/clot dissolves  
    • 4. Scarring phase/scar tissues
  80. What is on granulation stage?
    The combination of blood clot, fibroblasts and an extensive capillary network.