SOC101 Ch 2

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  1. Beliefs
    mental acceptance that certain things are true or real
  2. counterculture
    a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles.
  3. cultural imperialism
    the extensive infusion of one nation’s culture into other nations.
  4. cultural lag
    William Ogburn’s term for a gap between the technical development of a society (material culture) and its moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture).
  5. cultural relativism
    the belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards.
  6. cultural universals
    customs and practices that occur across all societies.
  7. culture
    the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
  8. culture shock
    the disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
  9. ethnocentrism
    the assumption that one’s own culture and way of life are superior to all others.
  10. folkways
    informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture.
  11. high culture
    activities patronized by the elites- art, literature, theater, ballet, opera & etc.
  12. language
    a set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another.
  13. laws
    formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions.
  14. material culture
    a component of culture that consists of the physical or tangible creations (such as clothing, shelter, and art) that members of a society make, use, and share.
  15. mores
    strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture.
  16. nonmaterial culture
    a component of culture that consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society (such as attitudes, beliefs, and values) that influence people's behavior.
  17. sanctions
    rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior.
  18. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    is the proposition that language shapes the view of reality of its speakers.
  19. subculture
    a group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differs in some significant way from that of the larger society.
  20. symbol
    anything that meaningfully represents something else.
  21. taboos
    mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable.
  22. technology
    the knowledge, techniques, and tools that allow people to transform resources into a usable form and the knowledge and skills required to use what is developed.
  23. value contradictions
    values that contradict one another or are mutually exclusive.
  24. values
    collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture.
Card Set:
SOC101 Ch 2
2014-09-18 18:19:57
sociology two vocabulary
Vocabulary words from sociology textbook chapter 2
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