Chapter 13

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Author:
Mingming
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283463
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Chapter 13
Updated:
2014-09-19 03:50:57
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Chapter13
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AnaPhy
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The Blood
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  1. it is a uniquely specialized connective tissue
    blood
  2. 2 components of blood
    • blood cells
    • plasma
  3. the formed elements of the blood
    blood cells
  4. fluid part of the blood
    plasma
  5. classification of blood cells
    • erythrocytes or red blood cells
    • leukocytes or white blood cells
    • thrombocytes or platelets
  6. Plasma is about ___ of the blood
    55%
  7. Formed elements make up about ___ of the total volume of blood
    45%
  8. An average woman has about ___ of blood
    5 liters
  9. An average man has about  ___ of blood in the body
    6 liters
  10. Blood accounts for ___ of total body weight
    8%
  11. complex fluid that performs a number of critical functions
    blood
  12. it is needed by the cells for cellular metabolism
    oxygen
  13. **note**
    • FUNCTIONS OF THE BLOOD
    • maintaining homeostasis
    • transports oxygen
    • transports carbon dioxide
    • carries nutrients, ions, and water
    • transports waste products
    • transports hormones
    • transports enzymes
    • carries buffers and amino acids
    • regulate body pH
    • regulation of normal body temperature
    • protects the body against microorganisms and toxins
  14. it is an excellent heat absorber and coolant
    water
  15. what is the normal pH level of the blood
    7.35 to 7.45
  16. it makes up about 95% of the volume of blood cells
    erthrocytes
  17. Erythrocytes make up about ___ of the volume of blood cells
    95%
  18. 2 subcategories of Leukocytes
    • granular leukocytes
    • agranular leukocytes
  19. they have granules when stained with Wright's stain
    Granular leukocytes
  20. types of granular leukocytes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  21. make up 60-70% of the WBC
    neutrophils
  22. neutrophils make up ___ of the WBC
    60% to 70%
  23. make up 2% to 4% of WBC
    eosinophils
  24. Eosinophils make up ___ of WBC
    2% to 4%
  25. make up 0.5% to 1% of the WBC
    basophils
  26. basophils make up ___ of the WBC
    0.5% to 1%
  27. they do not show granules when stained with Wright's stain
    Agranular or nongranular leukocytes
  28. two types of agranular leukocytes
    • monocytes
    • lymphocytes
  29. make up 3% to 8% of WBC
    Monocytes
  30. Monocytes make up ___ of WBC
    3% to 8%
  31. make up about 20% to 25% of WBC
    Lymphocytes
  32. There are ___ more RBCs in blood than WBCs and at least ___ more RBCs than platelets
    • 700 times
    • 17 times
  33. Plama is ___ water; ___ proteins ___, ___, ___; ___ solutes
    • 91%
    • 7%
    • albumin
    • globulins
    • fibrinogen
    • 2%
  34. plays a role in maintaining osmotic pressure and water balance between blood and tissues
    albumin
  35. these are antibodies and complement, which are important in the immune response of the body
    globulins
  36. plays a vital role in the plotting mechanism
    fibrinogen
  37. African American who developed blood storage techniques. Research on blood plasma. led to the formation of blood banks
    Dr. Charles Drew
  38. it is known as the blood cell forrmation
    hematopoeiesis
  39. it is also known as the red bone marrow
    myeloid tissue
  40. all blood cells are produced by ___
    red bone marrow
  41. they produce agranular leukocytes
    lymphatic tiisue
  42. mesenchymal cells from which all blood cells develop from
    stem cell
  43. other term for stem cell ___
    hematocytoblasts
  44. they eventually lose their nuclei and become mature RBCs
    proerythroblasts
  45. these cells will develop into progranulocytes
    myeloblasts
  46. **note**
    • basophilic myelocytes
    • eosinophilic myelocytes
    • neutrophilic myelocytes
    • lymphoblasts
    • monoblasts
    • megakaryoblasts
  47. biconcave disks with edges that are thicker than the center of the cell
    erythrocytes
  48. they do not have nucleus
    erythrocytes
  49. network of protein
    stroma
  50. red pigment
    hemoglobin
  51. it constitutes 33% of the cell's volume
    hemoglobin
  52. hemoglobin constitutes ___ of the cell's volume
    33%
  53. erythrocytes contain about ___ molecules of hemoglobin per erythrocyte
    280 million
  54. erythrocytes live for ___
    120 days
  55. primary function of erythrocytes
    combine with oxygen in the lungs and transport it into various tissues of the body
  56. hemoglobin is made of ___ and ___
    • globin
    • heme
  57. a pigment of hemoglobin that contains four iron atoms
    heme
  58. how many RBCs does a healthy man have?
    5.4 million RBCs/mmof blood
  59. how many RBCs does a healthy woman have?
    4.88 million RBCs/mm3
  60. they have nuclei but no pigment
    leukocytes
  61. movement of the leukocytes
    ameboid movement
  62. send out a cytoplasmic extension that attaches to an object...
    ameboid movement
  63. these are the most common of leukocytes
    neutrophils
  64. most active WBCs in response to tissue destruction by bacteria
    neutrophil
  65. they stay in the blood for 12 hours
    neutrophils
  66. Neutrophils stay in the blood for ___
    12 hourss
  67. it destroys certain bacteria
    lysozome
  68. they are the largest leukocytes
    monocytes
  69. when monocytes enter tissues and increase in size, they are called ___
    macrophages
  70. they combat irritants and they also produce antihistamines
    eosinophils
  71. they release heparin, histamin and serotonin into tissues
    basophils
  72. an anticoagulant
    heaparin
  73. an inflammatory substance
    histamine
  74. a vasoconstrictor
    serotonin
  75. **note**
    • Lymphocytes:
    • involvd in the production of antibodies
    • immune response
    • smallest of the leukocytes
    • for controlling cancer cells
    • destroying microorganisms
    • rejecting foreign plant tissue
  76. types of lymphocytes
    • T lymphocytes
    • B lymphocytes
  77. Leukocyte number
    5000 to 9000 per mm3
  78. Life span of WBC
    In a healthy body, some WBC live for only a ___
    During infections, they may live for only a ___
    • few dayys
    • few hours
  79. are disk shaped cellular fragments with a nucleus
    thrombocytes
  80. 2 to 4 micrometers per diameter
    thrombocytes
  81. they have a lifespan of about a week
    thrombocytes
  82. it is a process that the body uses to stop the loss of blood
    clotting mechanism
  83. it is a complex process that requires 3 stages
    clotting or coagulation
  84. **note**
    a cut in a blood vessel causes the smooth walls of the vessel become rough and irregular
  85. The damaged tissues release ___. These causes a series of reactions that result in the production of prothrombin activator
    thromboplastin
  86. a plasma produced by the liver
    prothrombin
  87. In the third stage, ___, is catalyzed by ___that framents ___ into ___
    • soluble fibrinogen
    • thrombin
    • fibrinogenn
    • fibrin
  88. forms long threads that act like a fish net
    fibrin
  89. tightening of the fibrin clot in such a way that the ruptured area of the blood vessels gets smaller and smaller, thus decreasing the hemorrhage
    clot retraction
  90. other term for clot retraction
    syneresis
  91. it is the clear yellowish liquid that is seen after the clot forms
    serum
  92. it is a blood plasma without clotting factors
    Serum
  93. dissolution of blood clot
    fibrinolysis
  94. it is a cholesterol containing mass that adheres to smooth walls of blood vessels
    plaque
  95. it is clotting in such an unbroken vessel
    thrombosis
  96. the clot in an unbroken vessel
    thrombus
  97. when blood clot forms in a vessel that supplies the brain
    cerebral thrombosis
  98. when blood clot forms in a vessel that supplies the heart
    coronary thrombosis
  99. if the tissues are killed, it is called an ___
    infarction
  100. a piece of blood clot that is dislodged and transported by the bloodstream
    embolus
  101. it is when an embolus becomes dislodged in a vessel and cuts of circulation
    embolism
  102. if a blood clot dislodges and travels to the lungs and blocks the vessel supplying it, it is referred to as ___
    pulmonary embolism
  103. clumping of RBCs
    agglutination
  104. it is the result of a transfution reaction caused by mismatched blood
    Agglutination of RBCs
  105. it consists of individuals who have the presence or absence of two major antigens on the RBC membrance
    ABO blood group
  106. four antigen combinations
    • only A
    • only B
    • both A and B
    • Neither A not B
  107. formed during infancy against ABO antigens not present in our own RBCs
    Antibodies
  108. universal recipient
    type AB blood
  109. Universal donor
    type O blood
  110. animals in which one of the eight Rh antigens or factors was fist identified and studied
    Rhesus monkeys
  111. other term for antigen D
    agglutinogen D
  112. if Rh antigens are found o the RBC membrane, the blood is ___
    Rh postitive
  113. hemolytic disease of the newborn
    erythroblastosis fetalis
  114. a drug that is an anti-Rh antibodies that will bind to Rh positive fetal cells and shield them
    RhoGAM

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