Ecology Glossary Terms Chapter 3

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Author:
MalloryHaggith
ID:
283469
Filename:
Ecology Glossary Terms Chapter 3
Updated:
2014-10-02 23:08:35
Tags:
Ecology
Folders:
Science,Ecology
Description:
Chapter 3 Ecology Glossary Terms
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  1. Biodiversity
    • -the number and variety of life forms, including species found within a specific the as well as all the number and variety of ecosystems within and beyond that region

    NOTE: biodiversity can be measured by canopy fogging, quadrat sampling, transect sampling, netting
  2. Protect
    -to guard legally from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened, or of a specific concern

    NOTE: what happens in one ecosystem affects other ecosystems and species so we must protect them
  3. Biodiversity Hot Spot
    -a place where there is an exceptionally number of species in a relatively small area

    EXAMPLE: Carolinian Canada and Leitrim Wetlands are hotspots in Ontario

  4. Community
    -all the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem

    NOTE: many species depend on these interactions

  5. Dominant Species
    -species that are so abundant that they have the biggest biomass of any community member

    NOTE: removing a dominant species results in a decrease in an ecosystem

    EXAMPLE: in terrestrial ecosystems the dominant species is always the primary producer
  6. Keystone Species
    -a species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem

    NOTE: can be plants or animals

  7. Captive Breeding
    -the breeding of rare or endangered wildlife in controlled to increase the population size

    EXAMPLE: The prarie dog population was greatly reduced when people were poisoning and killing them, which had a big effect on the ecosystem. The black footed ferrets who consume the prairie dogs were also reduced and thought to be extinct. When they were re discovered they were brought to a facility where they could reproduce and then eventually be brought back into the wild.

  8. Ecosystem Engineer
    -a species that causes such dramatic changes to landscapes that it creates a new ecosystem

    EXAMPLE: in just a few weeks beavers can convert a small stream in a forest into an aquatic ecosystem that suits their needs perfectly

  9. Succession
    -the series of changes in an ecosystem that occurs over time following a disturbance

    EXAMPLE: In a beaver pond; the area changes from forest to a flooded forest, and then to a sunny pond and then to an abandoned pond. Each stage is ideal for different species.
  10. Habitat Loss
    -the destruction of habitats, which usually results from human activities

    EXAMPLE: deforestation, draining wetlands, damming rivers
  11. Deforestation
    -the practice of clearing forests for logging or other human uses, and never replanting them

    EXAMPLE: cut down for timbre, cleared for agricultural use

  12. Alien Species
    -a species that is accidentally or deliberately introduced into a new location

    NOTE: alien species can also be invasive

    EXAMPLE: Zebra mussels were brought into the Great Lakes from Asia (in ballast water) in the 1980's. Zebra mussels compete with native organisms for food upsetting the natural food chain as that organism declines causing a decline in the fish that eat it.

  13. Invasive Species
    -a species that can take over the habitant of native species

    NOTE: impacts food chain
  14. Overexploitation
    -the use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted

    EXAMPLE: fishing of Atlantic cod, hunting of passenger pigeons

  15. Extinction
    -the death of all the individuals of a species

    NOTE: may be caused by human activities (overexploitation)

    EXAMPLE: the dinosaurs

  16. Biodiversity Crisis
    -the current accelerated rate of extinctions

    NOTE: extinction rate is high
  17. Restoration Ecology
    -the renewal of degraded or destroyed ecosystems through active human intervention

    EXAMPLE: reforestation, wetlands restoration, controlling invasive/alien species, bioremediation, Bioaugmentation
  18. Reforestation
    -the regrowth of a forest, either through natural processes or through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down

  19. Biocontrol
    -the use of a species to control the population growth or spread of an undesirable species

    • EXAMPLE: controlled using Biocontrol or chemicals
  20. Bioremediation
    -the use of living organisms to clean up contaminated areas naturally

  21. Bioaugmentation
    -the use of organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils

    EXAMPLE: use of clover to add nutrients to the depleted soils

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