Psychology Exam 2

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Psychology Exam 2
2014-09-19 12:19:01
Psychology Exam
Psychology Exam 2
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  1. What is the largest part of your brain?
  2. What does the central nervous system contain?
    the brain and the spinal cord
  3. What is found at the base of the brain?
    the brain stem
  4. Which part of the brain smooths out movement?
  5. What part of the brain controls hunger and thirst?
  6. The _____________ are membranes that cover the brain
  7. the cerebrum consists of two halves called the left and right _______________
  8. Very early in life, brain cells stop...
    increasing in number
  9. The control center for thinking is the...
  10. Emphasizes the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain commonalities in language, learning, attention, perception, memory, sexual behavior, cooperation, helpfulness to others, emotion, and reasoning
    Evolutionary Psychology
  11. Attempts to tease apart the relative contributions of heredity and environment to explain individual differences in personality, mental ability, and other characteristics
    behavioral genetics
  12. genetic make up for a trait
  13. actual trait you display
  14. a change in gene frequencies within a population over many generations
  15. The evolutionary process in which individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in a particular environment tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers
    Natural Selection
  16. What are the 5 innate human characteristics
    • infant reflexes
    • Interest in novelty
    • Desire to explore and manipulate
    • Impulse to play and fool around
    • Basic cognitive skills
  17. A system that combines meaningless elements such as sounds or gestures to form structured utterances that convey meaning
  18. the way a sentence is spoken
    surface structure
  19. How a sentence is to be understood
    Deep structure
  20. Our ability to learn language is innate, but is also influenced by our experiences
    True or False?
  21. Interdisciplinary field that emphasizes evolutionary explanations of social behavior in animals
  22. A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals in a group
  23. Intelligence is primarily the result of environmental influences rather than heredity. 
    True or False?
    False, your intelligence is due to your genes
  24. Measure of intelligence originally computed by dividing a person's mental age by his/her chronological age and multiplying by 100
    Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
  25. Intelligence scores of identical twins are always correlated more strongly than those of fraternal twins. True or False?
  26. The scores of adopted children are strongly correlated with those of their biological parents. True or False?
  27. Study the brain and the rest of the nervous system in order to gain a better understanding of behavior
  28. Handles the central nervous system's input and output
    Peripheral Nervous System
  29. A collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain down the center of the back. Protected by the spinal column
    Spinal cord
  30. What are the 2 structures located in the central nervous system?
    Brain and spinal cord
  31. All portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord, it includes sensory and motor nerves.
    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  32. The subdivision of the PNS that connects to sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles
    Somatic Nervous system
  33. The subdivision of the PNS that regulates internal organs and glands
    Autonomic Nervous System
  34. The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes bodily resources and increases the output of energy during emotion and stress
    Sympathetic Nervous System
  35. The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that operates during relaxed states and that conserves energy
    Parasympathetic Nervous system
  36. The brains communication specialists, transmitting information to, from, and within the central nervous system
  37. A cell that conducts electrochemical signals; the basic unit of the central nervous system; also called the nerve cell
  38. Provide the neurons with nutrients, insulate them, protect the brain from toxic agents, and remove cellular debris when neurons die. They also communicate chemically with other neurons.
    Glial Cells
  39. What part of a neuron is tree-like or "branchy"?
  40. Receive information from other neurons and transmit toward the cell body
  41. Keeps the neuron alive and determines whether it will fire
    Cell Body
  42. Extending fiber that conducts impulses away from the body and transmits to other cells
  43. A fatty insulation that may surround the axon of a neuron
    Myelin Sheath
  44. A bundle of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system
  45. The production of new neurons from immature stem cells
  46. immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells
    Stem cells
  47. The site where transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occurs
  48. A brief change in electrical voltage occurs between the inside and outside of an axon when a neuron is stimulated
    Action Potential
  49. Chemical released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse and capable of affecting the activity of a receiving neuron
  50. The brain's ability to change and adapt in response to experience
  51. Affects sleep, appetite, sensory perception, temp, mood
  52. voluntary, movement, memory, emotions
  53. Muscle action, cognitive functioning, memory, emotions
  54. Heart rate, learning, memory, dreaming, waking, and emotions
  55. Which neurotransmitter affects neurons involved in sleep, appetite, sensory perception, temperature, pain suppression, and mood?
  56. When do hormones travel the fastest?
    During puberty
  57. What gland releases hormones into the bloodstream?
  58. Regulates daily biological rhythms
  59. Involved in emotions and stress
    Adrenal hormones
  60. Regulate development and functioning or reproductive organs; Androgens, estrogens, and progesterone
    Sex Hormones
  61. What type of nervous-system chemical enables neurons to excite or inhibit each other
  62. Involves damaging and removing sections of brain in animals, then observing their effects
  63. A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes
  64. Radio frequencies to produce vibrations in nuclei of atoms
  65. Analyzes biochemical activity in brain by using injections containing radioactive elements
    PET Scan
  66. Involved in sleeping, waking, and dreaming
  67. Responsible for certain autonomic functions such as breathing and heart rate
  68. Arouses cortex and screens and incoming information
    Reticular activating system
  69. Regulates movement and balance
  70. Involved in remembering simple skills and acquired reflexes; plays a part in understanding words, solving problems, and analyzing sensory information
  71. Relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex
  72. Involved in emotions and drives vital survival 
    (Fear, Food, Thirst, and Sex)
  73. Regulates autonomic nervous system
  74. Small endocrine gland which releases hormones and regulates other endocrine glands
    Pituitary gland
  75. Responsible for: Arousal, regulation of emotion, initial emotional response to sensory information
  76. The part of the brain responsible for the regulation of emotion is called the
  77. largest brain structure
  78. What connects the two hemispheres?
    Corpus callosum
  79. Broca's area in the left hemisphere does what