Social Psychology Quiz #2

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nik8222
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283534
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Social Psychology Quiz #2
Updated:
2014-09-21 22:32:52
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socialpsych ualbany
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chapters 8+5
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  1. social facilitation
    The effect of others have on performance when the individual is working alone

    Ex. people playing pool, cockroaches during maze
  2. social loafing
    individual contributions to group goal
  3. deindividualization
    how people behave when they are anonymous
  4. Zojonc (1965) theory of social facilitation
    • Other people increase physiological arousal
    • physiological arousal increases dominant responses
  5. why do others increase arousal
    • we monitor others' actions
    • nervousness raises physiological arousal
  6. distraction leads to
    arousal
  7. social loafing
    people don't work as hard in groups as alone
  8. what can we do about social loafing
    • eliminate anonymity
    • let subject monitor own performance
    • make them care about outcomes
    • make them care about the team
  9. effects of anonymity
    can lead to loosening of normal inhibitions; maybe because it reduces accountability cues
  10. groupthink
    • when maintaining group cohesion takes precedence over accuracy
    • A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment in a group that results from an excessive desire to reach a consensus
  11. antecedents of groupthink
    • highly cohesive groups
    • group isolation
    • a strong leader
    • high stress
    • outside threats
  12. symptoms of groupthink
    • self-censorship
    • rejecting dissenters
    • mindgaurds
    • illusion of unanimity
  13. are groups or individuals more risky in making decisions
    groups
  14. group polarization
    • if individuals are originally risky, group becomes more risky
    • if individuals are originally cautious, groups become more cautious
    • groups enhance member's preexisting opinions
  15. normative influence on group polarization
    • people value extreme opinions
    • people think their opinions are more extreme than they are
    • group discussion reveals this error
    • everyone shifts toward extremes of new distribution to stay extreme
    • evidence: people predict their attitudes are more extreme than the group's average
  16. informational influence on group polarization
    • each side has arguments in its favor
    • each individual only thinks of some of the arguments
    • group reveals everyone's arguments
    • on average, the side with the most proponents will yield the most arguments in favor
    • evidence: people only list arguments and not opinions and the shift still occurs
  17. common knowledge effect
    • people tend to discuss shared opinions
    • group decisions are poor when unshared information is critical
  18. stasser and titus
    • discussion of job applicant
    • 8 positive attributes and 4 negative attributes
    • when all knowledge shared, 83% hire
    • when neg attributes shared, 24% hire
  19. minority influence
    a consistent minority can change the opinions of a majority
  20. moscovici's theory of minority influence
    minorities are important in society because they make majorities "rethink"
  21. degree of difference
    single minorities (straight person arguing for gay rights) has more power than double minority (gay guy arguing for gay rights)
  22. leadership tasks types
    • task-oriented: accomplishing the goals of the group
    • relationship-oriented: attention to the emotional and interpersonal aspects of group interaction
  23. leader effectivness
    leader's effectiveness depends on the type of situation
  24. better leadership type for moderately difficult situations
    relationship-oriented leader
  25. better leader for chaotic or very defined situations
    task-oriented
  26. nature: evolutionary psychology
    assumes much of behavior is genetically determined
  27. natural selection
    • the process where biological features or patterns of behavior that help organism reproduce tend to spread throughout a species over time
    • if trait helps an organism reproduce, it becomes increasingly common and vice versa
  28. men are attracted to
    • youth
    • beauty
    • sexual loyalty
  29. women are attracted to
    • status/power/dominance
    • resources
    • emotional loyalty
  30. biological facts about men
    • - can have many children
    • - never sure they are true father
    • - can't tell when or if women are fertile

    Hence

    • - desire many partners with minimal investment
    • - look for fertile partners
    • - demand sexual loyalty
  31. biological facts about women
    • - can only have few children
    • - need to invest many resources in these children
    • - relatively vulnerable at points 

    Hence

    • - desire commitment from partners
    • - look for high status
    • - demand emotional loyalty from partners
  32. criticisms of evolutionary theory
    • correlation is not causation; impossible to run an experiment on evolution
    • fulfilling social roles rather than evolutionary pressure
  33. role
    set of rules (norms) that define how a person in a given social position ought to behave
  34. social roles
    • defined by society
    • applied to all individuals in that social category
    • consist of well-learned responses by individuals
    • male and female social roles differ
  35. social roles for men
    • dominent
    • aggressive
    • emotionally non-expressive
  36. social roles for women
    • nurturing
    • friendly
    • sensitive
    • lower status
  37. role conflict
    • when a person occupies two roles that expect very different behaviors 
    • ex: student and employee - have 8:45 class, but expected to work overtime
    • leads to stress and self-control issues
  38. status
    • the prestige of various roles
    • social standing or rank within a group
    • different roles are assigned to different status
    • often used to influence the behavior members of a group: only "good" members receive high status
    • people start to expect to be treated based on their status
  39. social roles and expectations
    • our social roles can be a powerful influence on our behavior
    • often we are unaware of their influence and that we are fulfilling our social roles
  40. learning gender
    • children are not aware of gender until about 2 years old
    • 2 year olds can sort photographs into male and female categories
    • by 3-4 years, can label themselves as male or female, but not aware that sex is unchangeable
  41. maintaining gender roles
    • rewarded for gender appropriate behavior and punished for gender inappropriate behavior
    • ex. how would you respond to a little boy asking for a punching bag compared to a little girl
  42. high femininity and high masculinity
    androgynous
  43. high femininity and low masculinity
    traditional female
  44. low femininity and high masculinity
    traditional male
  45. low femininity and low masculinity
    undifferentiated

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