Organic Chem Unit 2 (part 1)
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Organic Chem Unit 2 (part 1)
organic chem 230 alcohol ethers thiols
chapter 12 organic chem 230
contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a carbon chain
contains a hydroxyl group attached to a benzene ring
IUPAC name for alcohol?
replace the -e with -ol
common name for alcohol?
methyl alcohol etc.
when there is an -OH group what type of bond does it have?
what type of alcohol has the highest boiling point?
what type of alcohol has the lowest boiling point?
what makes an alcohol soluble in water?
the more OH's, the more?
soluble it is in water and the higher the boiling point
rubbing alcohol, antifreeze, and glycerol are all?
soluble in water because of -OH
used in antiseptics and disinfectants
compounds of phenol are the active ingredients in the ?
essential oils of cloves, vanilla, nutmeg and mint
classification of alcohols is determined by ?
the number of alkyl groups attached to the carbon bonded to the hydroxyl
carbon compunds that contain a -SH group
how are thiols named?
by adding thiol to the alkane name of the longest carbon chain
often have strong odors
are used to detect gas leaks
are found in onions, oysters and garlic
are the functional group in peptides
O connected to H, N or F
contains an -O- between two carbon groups
common name for ethers?
gives the alkyl names of the attached groups followed by ether
water + ether... what type of bond
ethers can not do hydrogen bonding when?
it is mixed with itself and no water
do not normally react with reducing agents or bases
reactivity of ethers?
requires heat and acid catalyst
take alcohols and dehydrate them to make?
ethers act as?
second in production of organic compounds
boiling point of alcohols?
contains polar OH groups
form hydrogen bonds with other alcohol molecules
alcohols have higher boiling points than?
alkanes and ethers
do not have a polar group and have an O, but no H
cannot form hydrogen bonds between ether molecules
why are alcohols and ethers more soluble in water than alkanes?
bc alkanes are nonpolar and have London dispersion forces
alcohols have what for bonding
London dispersion and polar end with hydrogen bond
boiling point depends on?
when does alcohol become insoluble?
with more than 4 carbons
benzens ___ soluble in water, but phenol ____
is corrosive and irritating to skin?
has a hydroxyl group that ionizes slightly (weak acid)
polarity of ether?
slightly polar bc it has an O
combustion of alcohols?
combustion with O2 to produce Co2 and H20
dehydration of alcohols?
take water off
use acid catalyst (H+)
the loss of H and OH from adjacent carbon atoms
dehydration of alcohols
what does dehydration of alcohols produce?
alkene and water
alcohols dehydrate with ?
heat in presence of strong acid to produce alkanes
a type of elimination reaction?
in an elimination reaction the alkene with the greatest number of alkyl groups on the double bonded carbon is the major product of the reaction
in zaitsev's rule, you want double bond to be?
more highly substituted
acid + heat reaction removes?
combustion is mixing___? burning it creates?
Co2 + water + heat
dehydration reaction catalyst?
acid and heat
increase in the number of C-O bonds, and loss of H
there is a decrease in the number of C-O bonds, gain of H
oxidation is losing
reduction is gaining
RCR w/ =O on C?
alkane is oxidized into? which is oxidized into? which is then oxidized into?
type of alcohol that cannot be oxidized?
acts as a depressant?