respiratory part 1

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Hbottorff
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283542
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respiratory part 1
Updated:
2014-09-27 22:36:22
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anp
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part one of sg
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  1. List in correct order the 5 general functions of the respiratory system
    • Ventilation
    • external respiration
    • gas transport
    • internal respiration
    • cellular respiration
  2. the exchange of air in the lungs
    ventilation
  3. exchange of gases (o2, CO2) between the lungs and blood
    external respiration
  4. Transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissue, and transport of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs
    Gas Transport
  5. Exchange of gas between the blood and internal tissues
    internal respiration
  6. oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria to make ATP
    cellular respiration
  7. describe why we breath (2 statements)
    WE breathe in order to bring O2 for cellular respiration, and get rid of CO2 released from cellular respiration
  8. what is the carbonic disassociation formula
    CO2 + H2O <> H2CO3<> H+ + HCO3-
  9. what is the normal value of blood pH
    7.35-7.45
  10. what is the normal value of blood PCO2
    35-45 torr
  11. define alkalemia
    when the arterial blood is a pH greater than 7.45
  12. define alkalosis
    is the process of causing akalemia
  13. define acidemia
    when the arterial bloods pH is less than 7.35
  14. define acidosis
    the process of becoming academia
  15. define respiratory acidosis
    respiratory process causing academia, indicator is pCO2 is above 45 torr
  16. define respiratory alkalosis
    respiratory process causing alkalemia, pCO2 is below 35 torr
  17. according to the CDF what rises in order to cause a blood pH imbalance
    CO2 levels rise
  18. what part of the brain stem controls breathing
    Pons
  19. define hypercapnia
    increased arterial pCO2
  20. define hypocapnia
    decreased arterial pCO2
  21. define hyperventilation
    when the rate and depth of respiration exceeds the demands of O2 delivery and CO2 removal
  22. what is the correlation between CO2 levels and rate and depth of breathing
    • hypoventilation INCREASED pCO2
    • hyperventilation DECREASED pCO2
  23. for a healthy individual what is the primary factor stimulating increased breathing activity
    increased blood pCO2
  24. For an individual with COPD what is the primary factor stimulating increased breathing activity
    less than 50% of normal pO2
  25. define baroreceptor reflexes
    when arterial blood pressure decreases below its normal range, the respiratory minute volume increases to insure adewuate oxygen delivery
  26. Apnea
    when breathing has stopped
  27. inflation reflex
    occurs when stretch receptors in the lungs are activated and inhibit inspiratory muscle action, thus preventing the lungs from over expansion
  28. Daltons Law
    all the partial pressures added together equal the total pressure exerted by the gas mixture
  29. partial pressure
    this is the gas exerted by a single gas in a mixture of gases. as Px where x is the single gas
  30. ficks law of diffusion
    • Dk * CG * SA * T
    • _______________
    • MW * MT
  31. in regards to Ficks what has a direct effect of diffusion
    • concentration gradient
    • surface area
    • temp
  32. in regards to Ficks what has an inverse effect of diffusion
    • molecular weight
    • membrane thickness
  33. if the aveolar membrane is swelling due to asthma, what woould happen to gas exchange
    • it would decrease due to Ficks
    • if the membrane thickness increases diffusion will decrease
  34. typical gas values in alveoli
    • pO2 = 100 torr
    • pCO2 = 40 torr
  35. typical gas values in pulmonary capillary bed
    • pO2 = 40 torr
    • pCO2 = 45 torr
  36. hemoglobin
    is a structure comprised of a heme group (iron) and a globin group ( polypeptide) and functions to carry oxygen to tissues
  37. oxyhemoglobin
    hemoglobin molecule that has an oxygen attached to it
  38. deoxyhemoglobin
    hemoglobin that has lost its oxygen
  39. hemoglobin saturation
    the precentage of heme groups containing bound oxygen at any given moment
  40. oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve
    shows the saturation of hemoglobin at different partial pressures of oxygen
  41. bohr effect
    • when hemoglobin will release more oxygen when the conditions have
    • lower O2
    • lower pH
    • higher CO2
  42. during exercise, hemoglobin releases more oxygen to active muscles than it does when those muscles are at rest, WHY
    • it causes a right shift
    • increased CO2
    • decreased O2
    • decreased pH
  43. carbaminohemoglobin
    formed when CO2 molecules bind to the amino group on the hemoglobin molecule
  44. carbonic anhydrase
    the enzyme is located in red blood cells which speeds up the carbonic acid dissociation
  45. what causes the chloride shift
    occurs as HCO3- leaves the red blood cell and enters the blood plasma. this causes the blood plasma to become more negative. to correct this chloride is removed from plasma and enters the red blood cell
  46. where does CO2 come from
    cellular respiration
  47. list the three ways CO2 is transported from body cells to lungs
    • dissolved in plasma 7%
    • attaches to hemoglobin 23%
    • bicarbonate ions dissolves in the blood 70%
  48. where does the conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate ions occur
    red blood cells
  49. the steps of inspiration
    • phrenic nerve from medulla causes diaphragm and intercostal muscles to contract
    • the muscle contraction of the two increases the volume of the thoracic cavity
    • the increase thoracic volume lowers the pressure (boyles law)
    • Atmospheric pressure ( which is greater than the intra-aveolar pressure) forces air into the lungs
  50. what is the first step of inspirtation
    phrenic nerve from medulla causes diaphragm and interconstal muscles to contract
  51. what is the second step in inspiration
    the muscle contraction of the two increases the vol. of the thoracic cavity
  52. what is the third step in inspiration
    the increase in thoracic volume lowers the pressure according to boyles law
  53. what is the 4th step in inspiration
    atm pressure because it is greater than the intra-aveolar pressure forces air into lungs
  54. describe the steps of expiration
    • the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
    • elastic recoil of lung tissue and the weight of the chest decrease the volume in the thoracic cavity
    • the reduced volume increases pressure forcing air out of the lungs
  55. what is the first step of expiration
    the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
  56. what is the second step of expiration
    elastic recoil of the lung tissue and weight of the chest decreases the vol. in the thoracic cavity
  57. what is the final step of expiration
    the reduced vol increases pressure forcing air out of the lungs
  58. the volume of air that enters or leaves during a respiratory cycle is
    tidal volume
  59. during forced maximal inspiration, a volume of air in addition to the resting tidal volume is
    inspiratory reserve volume
  60. during maximal forced expiration about 1,100 mL of air in addition to the resting tidal volume is expelled from the lungs is called
    expiratory reserve volume
  61. even after maximal forced expriation there is about  1,200 mL of air that remains in the lungs this is called
    residual volume
  62. the tidal volume plus the inspiratory reserve volume is this? this is the maximum vol. of air a person can inhale following a resting expiration.
    inspiratory capacity
  63. the expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume is this? the volume of air that remains in the lungs following a resting expiration
    functional residual capacity
  64. the vital capacity plus the residual volume equals...
    total lung capacity
  65. the inspiratory reserve volume plus the tidal volume plus the expiratory reserve volume is this? this is the volume of air the person can take in after taking the deepest breath possible
    vital capacity
  66. air that doesnt reach the alveoli and remains in the brochules and trachea is this
    anatomical dead space
  67. the volume of air moved each minute is
    minute ventilation
  68. the formula for minute ventilation is
    • Ve = f * Vt
    • Ve = the amount of air moved in and out
    • f = the number of breaths per minute
    • Vt = tidal volume
  69. if you have 16 breaths per minute and a tidal volume of 900mLs per breath what is the formula and answer
    • Ve = f * Vt
    • Ve = 16 * 900
    • Ve = 14400 mLs moved in and out of lungs
  70. the amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute is
    Alveolar ventilation
  71. the formula for alveolar ventilation
    • Va = f * (Vt - Vd)
    • Va = air reaching alveoli each minute
    • f = breaths per minute
    • Vt = tidal volume (normal is 500mls/breath)
    • Vd = anatomical dead space
    • Va = 12 * 350 = 4200 mls per minutes
  72. what are the 5 general functions of the resp. system
    • ventilation
    • external respiration
    • gas transport
    • internal respiration
    • cellular respiration
  73. why do we breath
    we breath in order to bring in O2 for cellular resp. and to get rid of CO2 released from cellular respiration
  74. the exchange of air in the lungs
    ventilation
  75. exchange of gases between lungs and blood
    external respiration
  76. transport of O2 from the lungs to tissue and transport CO2 from tissues to the lungs
    gas transport
  77. exchange of gas between the blood and internal tissues
    internal respiration
  78. oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria to make atp
    cellular respiration
  79. what are the 4 main parts of the upper respiratory system
    • nose
    • nasal cavity
    • sinus
    • pharnyx
  80. 5 main parts of the lower respiratory system
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchules
    • bronchioles
    • smalles bronchioles
  81. which portion begins at nasal cavity and extends to larger bronchioles
    conducting portion
  82. which portion begins with smaller bronchioles and ends with alveoli
    respiratory portion
  83. tiny air filled sacs in which gas exchange with the blood occurs
    alveoli
  84. what are the three main functions of the mucous membrane
    • purify the air
    • warm
    • moisten
  85. ciliated columnar with mucous cells to clean moisten and warm the air
    respiratory mucosa
  86. stratified squamous to protect against abrasions
    pharnyx
  87. ciliated columnar with mucous cells that cleans the bronchiole
    trachea level
  88. what holds the trachea open
    cartilaginous C rings
  89. cells becoming cuboidal as they change from columnar to squamous
    bronchiole level
  90. simple squamous epithelium to allow for easy gas diffusion
    alveoli level
  91. this is the opening between the vocal cords through which air enters and leaves the lungs
    glottis
  92. this is the flap that covers the glottis during swallowing of food
    epiglottis
  93. these prevent the trachea from collapsing while being able to change shape to allow food to move thru the esophagus
    tracheal cartilages (C rings)
  94. this occurs when the bronchial tubes increase their diameter reducing the resistance of air flow
    bronchodialation
  95. this occurs when the bronchial tubes decrease their diameter increasing resistance to air flow
    bronchoconstriction
  96. what effect does the ANS have on bronchi activity
    activation of Beta receptors by the SNS causes bronchiole dilation in support of flight or fight
  97. this is a fluid secreted by type 2 lung cells the function is to reduce surface tension to allow breathing
    surfactant
  98. these are the individual air sacs in the lung in which gas exchange occurs
    alveoli
  99. found at the end of the alveolar duct it is a common chamber connected to several individual alveoli
    alveolar sac
  100. this is a common passage way this is connected to multiple individual alveoli
    alveolar duct
  101. which bronchus has a larger diameter and a steeper angle
    right pulmonary bronchus
  102. which side of the lungs does inhaled food tend to end up on ?
    right lung
  103. list the air way conducting passagways in the lower resp. tract (7)
    • trachea
    • L and R primary bronchus
    • secondary bronchus
    • tertiary bronchus
    • bronchioles
    • terminal bronchioles
    • pulmonary lobule
  104. why is inspiration active?
    it require the use of thoracic and diaphragmic muscles to bring in air
  105. why is expiration passive
    uses the elastic recoil of lungs
  106. what is boyles law
    • P = 1/v
    • P = pressure
    • 1 = constant
    • V = volume of the thoracic cavity
  107. use boyles law to describe INHALATION
    as the volume INCREASES  the pressure DECREASES so atm is higher than internal pressure forcing air into lungs
  108. use boyles law to describe EXHALATION
    as the volume DECREASES the pressure INCREASES so the atm is at a lower pressure than the internal lung pressure.

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