CIVL4520

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Author:
Anonymous
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283589
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CIVL4520
Updated:
2014-09-20 09:47:45
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Project Management
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CIVL4520
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  1. What is a project?
    A project is a temporary endeavour to deliver a unique product or service
  2. What is a operation?
    An ongoing process such as manufacturing bottles or maintaining roads
  3. What is a program of works?
    • A program is a portfolio of projects with similar or overlapping objectives such
    • that each project benefits from being managed as a whole
  4. What is project failure?
    Unhappy client

    Unhappy team

    Unhappy boss
  5. What is project failure?
    • Going over budget

    • Delivering late

    • Failure to meet client expectations

    • Getting it wrong

    • Disenchanted team

    • Getting sued
  6. Why do projects fail?
    • Poor planning

    • Lack of understanding of the scope

    • Poor communication

    • Poor team behaviours

    • Poor change control

    • Poor quality

    • Poor Project Management
  7. PMBOK
    Elements of Project Management
    • Scope

    • Cost

    • Quality

    • Time

    • Communications

    • Contracts

    • Risk

    • Human Resources

    • Integration
  8. What
    is the Scope?
    • Scope
    • definition as progressive problem solving



    Scope definition as a messaging game
  9. SMART
    Objectives
    • Specific

    • Measureable

    • Agreed

    • Realistic

    • Timed
  10. The WBS is used for
    • managing scope

    • managing time

    • • will be
    • used in allocating resources

    • estimating cost

    • tracking actual expenditure

    • tracking progress
  11. How can you be more innovative?
    – Believe there is a better way

    – Start from scratch – avoid tradition

    – Seek broad perspectives

    – Suspend judgement

    – Welcome serendipity

    – There are no restrictions – no rules
  12. How can you cultivate innovation?
    – Tolerate mavericks

    – Suspend judgement

    – And then don’t judge using the benchmark of tradition
  13. Planning: is made up of?

    Aka

    • What

    • Who

    • How

    • When
    • Scope

    • Time

    • Cost

    • Quality

    • Risk

    • Communications

    • Contracts

    • • Human
    • resources

    • Integration
  14. When do you start the plan?
    At the proposal stage!
  15. Things to cover in the plan
    • Scope

    • Tasks and deliverables

    • Innovation opportunities

    • Schedule

    • Cost

    • Safety

    • Roles and responsibilities

    • Resources

    • Risk management plan

    • Communication

    • Checking and verification
  16. Risk Management in Project Planning
    • Don’t plan on your own! Involve the team

    • Identify, assess and prioritise risks

    • • Develop methods to minimise, monitor and
    • control risks
    • • Plan to minimise likelihood and/or impact of risk

    • Maximise opportunities
  17. Common
    issues in project planning
    • Lack of understanding of the project objectives

    • Overzealous project schedule

    • Ignoring potential for change

    • Underestimating resources and costs

    • Making the plan too complex to be effective
  18. Characteristics of a good schedule
    • Simple

    • Realistic

    • Flexible – easy to update

    • Has commitment of the project team

    • Includes review and correction time

    • Includes float

    • Based on actual calendar dates
  19. Scheduling
    steps

    • Milestone chart

    • PERT chart

    • Gantt Chart

    • Critical Path Method (CPM)
    • Define tasks

    • Put them in sequence

    • Identify dependencies

    • Determine resources availability

    • Estimate durations

    • Develop preliminary schedule

    • Optimise schedule (CPM and resource levelling)

    • Review (by team and client)

    • Issue

    • Maintain and control schedule
  20. PERT
    Chart (Program Evaluation Review Technique)
    • Shows sequence and dependencies

    • May show durations but often does not

    • Does not show dates or critical tasks
  21. Gantt Chart
    • • A graphical representation of the sequence
    • and duration of activities
  22. Float
    • The time from earliest start that a task can be delayed without affecting the start of the next scheduled activity
  23. Schedule
    Contingency
    • The time from earliest possible finish to  planned finish
  24. Resource Constraint
    • The limiting of reduction in task durations by the reality of limits of resources, eg

    – people

    – equipment

    – materials
  25. Resource Levelling
    • • Adjusting the schedule to smooth out peaks 
    • and troughs in resource requirements during
    • the execution phase of the project
  26. Critical Path Method (CPM)
    • • A technique used to determine which tasks
    • are “critical” to the project completion date
  27. Cost performance Index
    • A measure of work done at a point in time
    • compared to Cost

    CPI = Earned Value/Actual Cost
  28. Schedule Performance Index
    A measure of work done at a point in time compared to plan (more about this later)

    SPI = Earned Value / Planned Value
  29. Time Value of money
    • FV = - PV(1+i)^n
    • PV = -FV/(1+i)^n
    • PV = -pmt(1-(1+i)^-n/i)
    • FV = -pmt((1+i)^-n-1/i)
    • PMT= -(i*pv/(1-(1+i)^-n)
  30. What is a cost estimate?
    • • A cost estimate is a prediction of the cost of the labour, materials, and equipment
    • required to deliver a project.

    • Typically, to establish the project budget or to investigate project feasibility
  31. Top-down estimating
    • Top-down estimates are based on past experience of similar projects, at the macro level
  32. Bottom-up estimating
    • Bottom-up estimates are prepared at the micro level, from the detailed task list of the work breakdown structure
  33. Uncertainty in estimates
    • Every estimate will have uncertainty in:

    – scope

    – quantities

    • – unit
    • rates/prices

    • – future
    • events (project risks)

    • This is allowed for as project contingency

    • Useful to show clearly as a separate wbs task
  34. Construction cost estimating
    We are not estimators, can’t be covered for it.
  35. Top-down estimate of fee by a consultant
    • Likely fee less planned profit gives total cost budget

    • Set aside some contingency

    • Subtract budget for expenses and subs

    • Gives budget available for staff time

    • • Divide by average cost rates of team to give
    • hours

    • Allocate hours to task in wbs to see what you can afford to do
  36. Bottom-up
    estimate of fee by a consultant
    • • Start with
    • the task list and

    • allocate staff
    • hours to tasks

    • • Multiply by
    • staff cost rates

    • • Add subs
    • and expenses

    • • Add
    • contingency

    • Add profit

    • Gives estimated fee
  37. Different
    types of fee agreements
    • • Fixed fee
    • • Time and materials (ie hourly rates
    • plus
    • expenses
    • – no limit
    • – with a not-to-exceed budget
    • – with a guaranteed max

    • Alliance
  38. Estimating Project Task Times
    • Past experience is essential

    • Make sure you are comparing tasks of similar Difficulty
  39. Earned
    Value Measurement
    • EVM is simply a weighted average way of measuring progress on a project

    • It measures PROGRESS based on outcomes
  40. What is a Contract
    • A agreement between parties under which mutual obligations and legal rights are created
  41. Essential Elements of a Contract
    • Offer

    • Acceptance

    • • Defined
    • terms

    • Consideration

    • • Legal
    • capacity

    • • Intention
    • to be bound

    • • Willing
    • consent

    • • Legality of
    • purpose

    • Intention to be bound
  42. Structure
    of a Typical Contract
    • Body of Contract

    – General Descriptions

    – Scope of Work etc

    • Conditions of Tendering

    • General Conditions of Contract

    • Special Conditions of Contract

    • Annexures to General Conditions of Contract
  43. General Conditions of Contract
    • Use of Standard General Conditions of contract is very common but not universal

    • Use of standard conditions is advantageous for all parties
  44. Special Conditions of Contract
    • Sets out clearly the non-standard conditions  of contract

    • The use of GCs combined with SCs of Contract  makes it easier for tenderers to understand their contractual obligations and risks

    • If risks are not clear then contractors and suppliers tend to add to their prices to cover the uncertainty
  45. Annexures to General Conditions
    • Sets out project specific information

    • Commonly there is more than one annexure

    • MUST be completed – for many of the items there is no default value, so if not completed

    NO CONTRACT EXISTS
  46. Letter of Intent
    – Is a statement of “good intentions” or “good faith”

    – More of a moral commitment than a legal one
  47. Notice to Proceed
    – Meant to be used to kick off the work after signing of a contract, when the terms of the contract do not permit immediate start eg because of access issues etc
  48. Things
    to watch out for in client contracts
    • • Limit of
    • Liability – you must have one

    • • Fit for
    • Purpose – uninsurable unless qualified

    • • Guarantee,
    • Warranty - uninsurable

    • Indemnities


    • • Consequential
    • loss or damages

    • • Liquidated
    • damages

    • • Third Party
    • Reliance - uninsurable

    • Standard of care
  49. Legal Options Available
    • Litigation

    • Arbitration

    • Expert Determination

    • Mediation (sometimes termed Conciliation)

    • Negotiation

    • • Dispute Resolution
    • Boards
  50. Expert Witness
    • A competent practitioner is NOT an expert Overriding duty to the Court - not to the person retaining the expert
  51. What is Quality?
    • Getting it right

    – First time
  52. Quality Control
    About checking, finding errors and fixing them
  53. Quality Assurance
    • More about checking, this has diminishing returns. It is about getting to underlying
    • cause of errors and reducing recurrence
  54. Risk
    • Risk is the effect of uncertainty on the achievement of objectives
  55. The PMBOK Risk Management Process
    • Risk Management Planning

    • Risk Identification

    • Qualitative Risk Analysis

    • Quantitative Risk Analysis

    • Risk Response Planning

    • Risk Monitoring and Control
  56. Risk Identification
    • • Determining which risks might affect the
    • project and

    • documenting their characteristics.
  57. Qualitative
    Risk Analysis
    • Prioritizing risks for subsequent further  analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.
  58. Quantitative
    Risk Analysis
    Numerically analyzing the effect on overall project objectives of identified risks.
  59. Risk
    Response Planning
    • • Developing options and actions to enhance
    • opportunities, and to reduce threats to project objectives
  60. Risk
    Monitoring and Control
    • Tracking identified risks,

    • monitoring residual risks,

    • identifying new risks,

    • executing risk response plans, and

    • evaluating their effectiveness throughout the project life cycle.
  61. Running
    a Risk Management Workshop
    • Gather a wide range of skills in the room

    • • Brainstorm risks – using thinking techniques
    • similar to an innovation workshop

    • • Do NOT try to sort or mitigate risks with the
    • large group – keep all thinking “parallel”

    • Separately classify and develop mitigation Plans
  62. Safety in Design
    • Legislation applies

    • • The designer MUST be able to demonstrate 
    • how they have considered the safety of constructors, users, an even the ultimate demolishers of their designed work

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