Block One Lecture 7

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Author:
DesLee26
ID:
283615
Filename:
Block One Lecture 7
Updated:
2014-09-20 14:46:30
Tags:
Garcia
Folders:
Micro
Description:
Test One
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  1. Prokaryotes don't follow normal genetics that eukaryotics follow. Why?
    bacteria acquire genes from same species, adn are genetic scavengers that take genes form other species. 

    It's genetic composition is that of other species
  2. Bacteria have two types of genetic material

    Explain the first
    one large circular chromosome which has everything they need to live
  3. Bacteria have two types of genetic material

    Explain the second.
    • extrachromosomal (genes that are not located on the big chromsome)
    • - come on plasmids
    • - get small, linear pieces of DNA from their environment 

    • ex: broth has dead organisms with genetic material-- broken up
    • --> can be taken to replace genes or enhance bacterial genome
  4. Flow of genetic information

    Reproduction
    • same as any cell 
    • --> parent to daughter

    budding and cytosolic streaming --> no meiosis
  5. What bacteria can do that we can't do
    recombination (possible due to simplicity/ occurs in many ways)
  6. How can recombination occur. 

    Name first.
    -- acquire genetic material from environment that comes from bacteria that have died

    ----> type of lysing that exposes genetic material

    ----> if complete and intact, cell takes it up and expresses it
  7. How can recombination occur. 

    Name second.
    • Acquire plasmids.
    • --> can change entire phenotype based on that plasmid (which is acquired and trasferred)

    ex: can develop penicillin resistance
  8. How can recombination occur. 

    Name third.
    A very specific way

    Pilus (hollow, short tube)

    • -> used for direct, genetic transfer from a cell with a pilus to a cell with no pilus
    • -> can be deliberate and direct
  9. More bacteria pick up genetic material __.
    ad hoc (non-secific)
  10. DNA of bacteria
    anti-parallel strands

    there are some weird nucleotide bases that exist in archaea, etc., but we disregard them

    still helical (circular, but helical)
  11. Prokaryotic DNA has no __.
    • DNA associated proteins
    • - no histones (no compacting)
  12. If there are no histones, how does the bacterial chromosome exist?
    the bacterial chromosome is free and loose in tehe nucleoid region
  13. Explain what the nucleoid region consists of.
    wherever the DNA chromosome may be at a time

    the region is not static
  14. Enzymes that replicate DNA
    • the same in Euk as prk with the same funciton
    • - DNA Pol: reads and writes in teh 3' to 5' direction, but adds in the 5' to 3' direction

    helicases

    ligases
  15. DNA Replication
    - as a single strand, it is __.
    - __ stablilize it
    very strong

    proteins stabilize it to keep it straight
  16. What is the problem with DNA replication?
    Where does the circle begin and end?
  17. Basic mechanism for all in the Domain Bacteria
    • 2 regulatory sequences
    • --> ORIs= tell DNA polymerase where to start replicating DNA material
    • --> termination = tells it this is the end sequence
  18. So, what happens?
    • we open up the sequence in a circle, giving you no necessity for a leading and lagging strand
    • --> DNA polymerase binds as if each strand is a leading strand
    • --> DNA polymerase does this and also binds as if they were a lagging strand
    • --> they are each their own leading and lagging strand
  19. Both DNA pol exit at the __. 

    __ is right behind. When finished, __. 

    __ creates the helix and is the last enzyme.
    termination of replication

    DNA ligase

    strands separate

    DNA helicase
  20. Transcription: __

    Bacteria have the __ and __.
    DNA-->RNA

    same function

    the different sequence
  21. When we talk about our genes, each gene essentially has __. 

    What are monocystronic genes?
    one product

    we have this because we have a lot of space in the genome, a lot that is not used, a lot of archaean genomes, a lot of regulatory components
  22. For prokaryotes, it is not __. 

    What is polycystronic?
    • complex
    • some genes have two mes., others 3, 4, etc.

    • not a lot of room for storage or history, etc. 
    • - number of products depends on gene

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