Ecology Chapter 2

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Ecology Chapter 2
2014-09-30 14:18:49

Ecology Glossary Terms
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  1. Population
    • A group of organisms of one species that live in the same place at the same time
    • Many factors affect the growth a pop'n (resources)
  2. Exponential Growth
    • Happens under certain conditions (introduction to a new habitat with unlimited resources and only for a short time in nature)
    • Limiting factors restrict exponential growth
  3. Limiting Factors
    • Factors that limit the growth/distribution of a pop'n in an ecosystem
    • Eg. food, space, water, nutrients, competition
  4. Carrying Capacity
    • The size a pop'n can be supported indefinitely by the resources and conditions of a given ecosystem
    • pop'n size is at an equilibrium when carrying capacity is reached
    • When a resource is used at a pace beyond the carrying capacity the pop'n size will reduce to a new equilibrium
  5. Ecological Niche
    • Includes resources used, abiotic limiting factors and biotic relationships
    • Eg. the brown bat eat insects, needs places to roost and hibernate, the time it hunts, air it flies through, must regulate the insects and beware of predators.
  6. Predator
    • An organism that consumes other organisms
    • Eg. fox
  7. Prey
    • An organism that is consumed or hunted by a predator
    • Eg. hare
  8. Mutualism
    • The mutual relationship between two different species that live in close proximity
    • Cleaner fish clean the skin of sharks. The fish get nutrients from the parasites on the sharks back, the shark gets a cleaning
  9. Parasitism
    • Parasites belong to a niche who is dependant on close association with a larger host.
    • Mosquitoes and other organisms. The mosquito gets nutrients to grow and reproduce but the other organism looses blood, gets an irritation and has the possibility of getting a disease
  10. Competition
    • Competition over the same resource can limit pop'n size
    • The more energy used for competition, the less can be used for growth and reproduction
    • If sparrows are competing for resources they will not have as much energy and nutrients to produce eggs. If eggs cannot be produced then the population of Sparrows will go down
  11. Sustainable Use
    • Use of a resource that doesn't cause long-term depletion of said resource or the effect diversity of the ecosystem the resource came from
    • We must use our resources carefully and wisely so that they will be there for future generations
  12. Doubling Time
    • The period of time taken for a population to double
    • Our current doubling time is 60 years
  13. Ecological Footprint
    • Measures the impact of an individual or pop'n on an environment
    • The amount of land they take up, resources they use, the amount of waster they produce
  14. Unsustainable
    • Ecological footprints that depend on irreplaceable fossil fuels
    • They need resources they can't replace and will one day run out of
  15. Sustainable
    Use of Earth's land, water and resources at levels that can continue forever
  16. Ecosystem Services
    • Benefits experienced by an organism that provide sustainable ecosystems
    • Clean water/food, cycling of nutrients, conversion of atmosphere to biomass (affects weather), pollination of crops/plants, balanced processes (growth/decomposition), provision of beauty/spirituality
  17. Desertification
    • If forests are clear cut then there is less water being released by trees
    • This will cause temperatures to rise and possibly desertification
    • This is the transformation of an ecosystem into s desert like area (very warm weather and droughts)
  18. Ecotourism
    • Many people enjoy eco-activities like whale watching or watching birds migrate or hiking and snow-shoeing 
    • If the ecosystems are not there to (safely) interact with it then places economy will go down due to the loss in tourism