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Per the week's online lecture, what are the four characteristics common to all organizations.
- (1) group of people
- (2) working together
- (3) in some concerted or coordinated effort to
- (4) obtain objectives
What are some ways managers can minimize social loafing
- keep group size at the appropriate level
- managers establish clear method to identify individual contributions to groups
- establish larger rewards for those that exert additional effort in groups
The span of management refers to the number of subordinates a manager can effectively manage.
Describe at least four items that are involved in implementing empowerment?
- Implementing empowerment involves restructuring units to be smaller, less complex, and less dependent on other units for decision making and action;
- minimizing the number of organizational rules;
- emphasizing personal accountability; and providing education
- and training for personal improvement.
The unity of command principle states that an employee should have one, and only one, immediate manager.
What is flattening when referring to an organization's structure?
A structure with few levels and relatedly large spans of management at each level.
_____ is the practice of subcontracting certain work functions to an outside entity.
What are quality circles?
Quality circles are composed of a group of employees (usually from 5 to 15 people) who are members of a single work unit, section or department; the basic purpose of a quality circle is to discuss quality problems and generate ideas that might help improve quality of products or services.
What are the reasons for organizing for work?
- (a) Establish lines of authority
- (b) Organizing improves the efficiency and quality of work through synergism
- (c) Improve communications
Define the concept of synergy and how it relates to management of organizations.
Organization improves the efficiency and quality of work through synergism. Synergism occurs when individuals or groups work together to produce a whole greater than the sum of the parts. For example, synergism results when three people working together produce more than three people working separately. Synergism can result from division of labor or from increased coordination, both of which are products of good organization.
What is an organization chart?
An organizational chart uses a series of boxes connected with one or more lines to graphically represent the organization’s structure.
Distinguish between a mechanistic and organic organizations.
- Mechanistic systems are characterized by a rigid delineation of functional duties, precise job descriptions, fixed authority and responsibility, and a well-developed organizational hierarchy through which information filters up and instructions flow down.
- Organic systems are characterized by less formal job descriptions, greater emphasis on adaptability, more participation, and less fixed authority.