NTD309 exam 1 (part 1)

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  1. science based 10 year national objective for improving the health of all americans
    healthy people 2020
  2. 3 of healthy people 2020 nutrition related preconception objectives?
    • increase the proportion of women who are at a healthy weight prior to pregnancy by 10%
    • reduce iron deficiencys among women of childbearing age by 10%
    • increase the proportion of women who did not drink alcohol prior to pregnancy by 10%
  3. the actual production of children
  4. chance of pregnancy per month?
  5. the biological capacity to bear children
  6. loss of conceptus less than 20 weeks
  7. multiple miscarriages, low sperm count
  8. what percent of couples in the US experience subfertility
  9. primary effect of chronic undernutrition?
    birth of small and frail infants with high likelihood of death in the first year of life
  10. associated with a dramatic decline in fertility that recovers when food intake does
    acute undernutrition
  11. nutrition related disruptions in fertility?
    • body fat
    • weight loss in females
    • weight loss in males
  12. weight loss in females can lead too?
    • amenhorrhea
    • anovulatory cycles
    • short or absent luteal phases
  13. weight loss in males can?
    stop sperm production
  14. what increases the likelihood of reproductive health problems?
    • obesity
    • underweight
  15. weight reduction methods?
    • lifestyle changes
    • decrease calorie intake
    • increase physical activity levels
    • weight loss surgery if else fails
  16. lower estrogen related to plant-based, low-fat, high fiber diets
    plant foods
  17. appears to prolong time to conception
  18. may decrease estrogen and testosterone levels or disrupt menstrual cycles
  19. factors for infertility in males?
    • alcohol intake
    • low zinc status
    • heavy metal exposure
    • hormones
    • heat
    • steroid abuse
  20. EPA and DHA are needed for?
    brain development in fetus
  21. what decreases risk for neural tube defects?
    folate.. folic acid
  22. helps with bone development?
    calcium and vitamin D
  23. needed for red blood cell production, growth, supplements may be recommended
  24. not enough of this could lead to mental retardation
  25. cluster of symptoms
  26. lack of period for 3 months
  27. the system that regulates hormones?
    endocrine system
  28. proteins produced in one area and go throughout the body,aka chemical regulators
  29. an endocrine and reproductive disorder of pre-menopausal women
    polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  30. number 1 cause of infertility in the US?
  31. has a negative effect on fertility?
  32. usually presents at puberty?
  33. some complications of PCOS?
    • chin hair
    • acne
    • darkening of skin due to insulin resistance
    • hypertension
    • hair loss or thinning
    • ovary cysts
  34. how is PCOS diagnosed?
    • irregular periods or no periods
    • bloods tests
    • elevated testosterone, hirsutism, alopecia, acne
    • cysts surrounding ovary
  35. high amounts of insulin?
    stimulates testosterone in women
  36. metabolic complications of PCOS?
    increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes
  37. PCOS is treated similar to?
  38. autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of small intestine
    celiac disease
  39. inherited sensitivity to gluten in wheat, rye, barley which causes malabsorption and flattening or intestinal lining
    celiac disease
  40. nutritional management of celiac disease?
    • eliminate gluten in diet
    • correction of vitamin and mineral deficiencies
  41. factors impacting nutrient needs?
    • age
    • body size
    • gender
    • growth
    • illness
    • medications
  42. recommendations for nutrient intakes developed by the food and nutrition board
    dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
  43. applied to healthy people in the US and Canada
  44. amount meets nutrient requirements of 50% of people in a life stage/gender group
  45. amounts meets the needs of most people in a life stage/gender group, estimated from the EARs
  46. amount thought to be adequate for most people, used when EAR and RDA cant be determined
    Adequate intake (AI)
  47. gives the safe upper limit, intake above ___ can be harmful
    tolerable upper intake level (UL)
  48. primary malnutrition?
    • inadequate intake
    • excessive levels of nutrient intake
  49. secondary malnutrition?
    results from a condition (illness, surgery, disease)
  50. individual health assessment (ABCD)?
    • anthropometric assessment
    • biochemical assessment data
    • clinical/physical assessment
    • dietary assessment
  51. measurements of body size and waist
    anthropometric assessment
  52. biochemical assessment?
    • biochemical lab
    • nutrient and enzyme levels
    • DNA characteristics
    • other biological markers
  53. visual inspection for features that may be related to malnutrition
    clinical/physical assessment
  54. dietary assessment includes?
    • 24 hour dietary recalls
    • diet records
    • dietary history and food habits
    • food frequency questionnaires
  55. dietary guidelines for americans, 2010?
    • basis for federal food and nutrition education programs and policies
    • promote health and chronic disease
    • science based guidelines for consumers
  56. daily values?
    compare amount in one serving to the amount recommended for daily consumption
  57. autoimmune disease where something happens that triggers the body to kill whatever is used to produce insulin
    type 1 diabetes
  58. in type one diabetes, the ?
    beta cells in pancreas are killed off
  59. type 1 diabetes is the
    acute death of beta cells
  60. all people with type 1 diabetes no longer
    produce insulin and must get it from an external source
  61. what percentage of people with diabetes have type 1?
  62. still produce insulin, but the receptor cells do not accept it
    type 2 diabetes
  63. this type of diabetes happens over a number of years
    type 2
  64. what percentage of people have type 2 diabetes?
  65. type 2 diabetes is?
  66. diff between type 1 and type 2 diabetes
    • type 1 - acute death of beta cells
    • type 2 - slow death of beta cells
  67. happens between 24-26 weeks of pregnancy, women cannot produce enough insulin
    gestational diabetes
  68. baby needs all the glucose in the blood towards the end of pregnancy, therefore mom?
    has to produce more insulin to be able to get it into her blood
  69. women with gestational diabetes cannont?
    produce enough insulin and all the glucose goes to the baby, which would continue to get bigger and bigger
  70. what drive gestational diabetes?
    placental hormones
  71. when placenta is delivered what goes away?
    gestational diabetes
Card Set
NTD309 exam 1 (part 1)
Introductory powerpoint Chapter 1 Diabetes notes fall 2014
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