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science based 10 year national objective for improving the health of all americans
healthy people 2020
3 of healthy people 2020 nutrition related preconception objectives?
- increase the proportion of women who are at a healthy weight prior to pregnancy by 10%
- reduce iron deficiencys among women of childbearing age by 10%
- increase the proportion of women who did not drink alcohol prior to pregnancy by 10%
the actual production of children
chance of pregnancy per month?
the biological capacity to bear children
loss of conceptus less than 20 weeks
multiple miscarriages, low sperm count
what percent of couples in the US experience subfertility
primary effect of chronic undernutrition?
birth of small and frail infants with high likelihood of death in the first year of life
associated with a dramatic decline in fertility that recovers when food intake does
nutrition related disruptions in fertility?
- body fat
- weight loss in females
- weight loss in males
weight loss in females can lead too?
- anovulatory cycles
- short or absent luteal phases
weight loss in males can?
stop sperm production
what increases the likelihood of reproductive health problems?
weight reduction methods?
- lifestyle changes
- decrease calorie intake
- increase physical activity levels
- weight loss surgery if else fails
lower estrogen related to plant-based, low-fat, high fiber diets
appears to prolong time to conception
may decrease estrogen and testosterone levels or disrupt menstrual cycles
factors for infertility in males?
- alcohol intake
- low zinc status
- heavy metal exposure
- steroid abuse
EPA and DHA are needed for?
brain development in fetus
what decreases risk for neural tube defects?
folate.. folic acid
helps with bone development?
calcium and vitamin D
needed for red blood cell production, growth, supplements may be recommended
not enough of this could lead to mental retardation
cluster of symptoms
lack of period for 3 months
the system that regulates hormones?
proteins produced in one area and go throughout the body,aka chemical regulators
an endocrine and reproductive disorder of pre-menopausal women
polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
number 1 cause of infertility in the US?
has a negative effect on fertility?
usually presents at puberty?
some complications of PCOS?
- chin hair
- darkening of skin due to insulin resistance
- hair loss or thinning
- ovary cysts
how is PCOS diagnosed?
- irregular periods or no periods
- bloods tests
- elevated testosterone, hirsutism, alopecia, acne
- cysts surrounding ovary
high amounts of insulin?
stimulates testosterone in women
metabolic complications of PCOS?
increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes
PCOS is treated similar to?
autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of small intestine
inherited sensitivity to gluten in wheat, rye, barley which causes malabsorption and flattening or intestinal lining
nutritional management of celiac disease?
- eliminate gluten in diet
- correction of vitamin and mineral deficiencies
factors impacting nutrient needs?
- body size
recommendations for nutrient intakes developed by the food and nutrition board
dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
applied to healthy people in the US and Canada
amount meets nutrient requirements of 50% of people in a life stage/gender group
amounts meets the needs of most people in a life stage/gender group, estimated from the EARs
amount thought to be adequate for most people, used when EAR and RDA cant be determined
Adequate intake (AI)
gives the safe upper limit, intake above ___ can be harmful
tolerable upper intake level (UL)
- inadequate intake
- excessive levels of nutrient intake
results from a condition (illness, surgery, disease)
individual health assessment (ABCD)?
- anthropometric assessment
- biochemical assessment data
- clinical/physical assessment
- dietary assessment
measurements of body size and waist
- biochemical lab
- nutrient and enzyme levels
- DNA characteristics
- other biological markers
visual inspection for features that may be related to malnutrition
dietary assessment includes?
- 24 hour dietary recalls
- diet records
- dietary history and food habits
- food frequency questionnaires
dietary guidelines for americans, 2010?
- basis for federal food and nutrition education programs and policies
- promote health and chronic disease
- science based guidelines for consumers
compare amount in one serving to the amount recommended for daily consumption
autoimmune disease where something happens that triggers the body to kill whatever is used to produce insulin
type 1 diabetes
in type one diabetes, the ?
beta cells in pancreas are killed off
type 1 diabetes is the
acute death of beta cells
all people with type 1 diabetes no longer
produce insulin and must get it from an external source
what percentage of people with diabetes have type 1?
still produce insulin, but the receptor cells do not accept it
type 2 diabetes
this type of diabetes happens over a number of years
what percentage of people have type 2 diabetes?
type 2 diabetes is?
diff between type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- type 1 - acute death of beta cells
- type 2 - slow death of beta cells
happens between 24-26 weeks of pregnancy, women cannot produce enough insulin
baby needs all the glucose in the blood towards the end of pregnancy, therefore mom?
has to produce more insulin to be able to get it into her blood
women with gestational diabetes cannont?
produce enough insulin and all the glucose goes to the baby, which would continue to get bigger and bigger
what drive gestational diabetes?
when placenta is delivered what goes away?