351B First test

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351B First test
2014-09-23 21:00:25
Baroque beginnings

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  1. who was the biggest sponsor of music
    • Big music patron is now the courts (no longer the church) 
    • Religious music sponsored by the church still exists just not as much
    • Music becomes very secular 
    • Court is ruled by feudalism
    • Nobility or royalty rule the city-states
  2. where were most composers employed?
    • Most good composers had full time jobs at a court 
    • They functioned almost like servants 
    • Patron would request a particular type of piece and they would compose it
    • Music went from being a craft to being an art during this time
    • Most musicians came from Italy and were "traded" around Europe
    • Towards the end of the baroque musicians became more and more and more like businessmen
  3. when did opera origionate
    • Opera is born during the early baroque 
    • Most important theatrical production of the baroque 
    • Is also the birth of virtuosic singer
  4. what is important about instrumental music during the early baroque?
    • First time that instrumental music is composed on a large scale
    • Modern instruments begin to appear 
    • 2 most important instruments of the baroque are the violin and the harpsichord
  5. what musical system is developed in this time period?
  6. which country dominated during the early baroque?
    • During this time France dominated politically  
    • Because king Louis XIV lasted for so long
    • They are also a huge cultural center for Europe because of this stability 
    • Italy innovates a lot but is constantly in flux
    • And was extremely fragmented 
    • England is in flux because of religious change
    • England has little money for music 
    • More focused on the birth of democracy 
    • This created the first public patronage of music 
    • French, British, Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch colonies appear
  7. what are the affections?
    • The affections 
    • Came from Greek discussions
    • This is the idea of heightened emotions 
    • 2 dimensional
    • how are they used
    • Take a freeze frame of one moment of emotion and sing about it for 20 minutes 
    • Wanted to express or arouse emotion
    • There was a huge appreciation for Greek culture
  8. When does the baroque begin and end?
    Baroque lasts from about 1590-1735
  9. where does the baroque begin and why does it start?
    • The baroque begins in Italy then fans out to other countries
    • Virtuosity drives the musical innovation of the time
    • Schools for the virtuoso 
    • Better instruments
    • Solo pieces
    • Singers are very big
    • Women singers became common and popular 
    • Castrati become popular 
    • They were usually the hero's
    • Tenors were servants if at all
  10. what three things are embraced during the baroque?
    • People embrace improvisation
    • People embrace ornamentation 
    • People embrace contrast
  11. how do people categorize music?
    • People also categorize music
    • Music is for the Church, Chamber, Or theater
    • They were all written slightly differently
  12. what sound concept is stopped during the early baroque and what replaces it?
    • You loose the renaissance wall of sound 
    • Replaced by a new "spare-homophony" 
    • All about a treble / bass polarity 
    • You stripped music down to heightened speech 
    • Take a baseline and add a bit of improvisation and ornamentation 
    • Called basso continuo or figured bass
    • Most music was treble + basso continuo
    • Continuo instrument was theorbo in the early baroque then cello and harpsichord in the late baroque
    •  The performer would realize the music.  Performances of the same piece could be wildly different (302) 
    •  Counterpoint was now driven by Harmony 
    • Everything was driven by the text
    • All about expressing text
  13. what was the normal continuo instrument
    Continuo instrument was theorbo in the early baroque then cello and harpsichord in the late baroque
  14. how was dissonance handled during the baroque
    • More dissonance became tolerated over time
    •   Chromaticism was occasionally  used especially to express high emotion 
    •           Musicians regarded sheet music as a basis for performance that was alterable
  15. where did opera come from?
    • Came from
    •  Greek dramas of Euripides and Sophocles
    • Liturgical dramas
    • Pastoral drama
    • Plays with some music
    • Similar to Greek drama
    • Madrigal 
    • Some madrigals were actually miniature dramas 
    • Intermedio
    • Musical interlude about events that would be performed between acts of a play
  16. who were the florentine camerata
    a group of scholars that met at the home of their rich patron giovanni de bardi who discussed music.
  17. what did the FC think about the affections?
    • They believed that since the Greeks were all about the affections,
    • Doctrine of affections
    • Affection dictates the type of music that was written
    • It  became the goal of all art to arise the affections (emotions) in the observer
  18. what did the FC want to do
    They wanted to recreate the passion of Greek drama
  19. what did Girolamo Mei do ?
    • Girolamo mei (archeologist) (1519-1594) (part of the camarata)
    • Discovered some Greek music 
    • Found tablets (on parchment) containing some sheet music
    • This created an outcry which made composers want to write like the music he found
    • Was a type of spare homophony
  20. what did vincenzo Galilei do?
    • Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591) (part of the Camerata)
    • Was an author / theorist 
    • His treatise was the beginning of the baroque 
    • Transcribed the hymns  that Girolamo discovered
    • Slammed many of the conventions of the renaissance
    • Said you had to use a simpler way of expressing the affections
    • Polyphony gets in the way (it's fine for instrumental works and church but not choir) 
    • Tried to recreate Greek drama in the modern language
    • Speke these words on these notes
    • Instrumental accompaniment is just enough to keep the singer in tune
    • Advocated the simplest homophony 
    • Treble + basso continue (spare homophony) was popular because of this treatise
  21. What was the new style of declamation?
    • Stile rappresentativo 
    • Highly declamatory way of singing
    • Almost just heightened speech (just barley singing)
    • These were the first "arias" (312)
    • At the time this meant any setting of strophic poetry
  22. Who were the two members of the camerata who were charged with spreading the new ideas?
    • Jacopo peri and Giulio caccini mostly
    • They used the new practices and did it very well
  23. la pellegrina
    • Play written for a Medici wedding
    • There were 6 intermedi (breaks in between movements)
    • Members of the florentine Camerata wrote pieces to be played in these breaks
    • (Luca marenzio, caccini, peri, emilio cavolieri) 
    • These were all about the "power of music"
    • These used monody with extreamly florid singing
    • First time you have a public presentation of the new style
    • First salvo of the "revolution"
    • First important precursor of opera
    • Other important precursors are 
    • 1590's
    • Madrigal plays
    • Madrigal comedies
    • Pastoral plays (with music)
  24. Peri and Rinuccini set out to recreate a greek tragedy in modern form. What was the thing they wrote?
    • Their attempts using rinuccini's poem Dafne. Was the very first opera done in 1598
    • It is now lost 
    • Except for two small arias we have no music from it
  25. L'Eurdice
    • Peri 
    • opera 
    • About orpheus's journey into the underworld
    • Orpheus plays the lyre in order to enter the underworld to save his wife to be
    • First surviving opera! 
    • Originally performed in Florence
    • 2 versions (one with some music by caccini the other without)
    • It's a prologue + five acts
    • Has an instrumental instruction
    • Listening
    • Special recitation monody
    • Lots of recitative setting everything up
    • Strophic
    • Ritornellos
    • Listening
    • Recitation of what happened to Eurydice 
    • Messenger that comes in and relays the happening to everyone
    • Odd style in the libretto
    • Rate of declamation gets faster over the course of the speec 
    • Some word painting
    • Harmonic rhythem changes
    • Choice of harmony and dissonance on key words
    • Orfeo begins singing
    • He is stunned > grief > I'm going to get her
    • Style changes through each emotion
    • Stunned
    • Limited range and short phrases
    • Grief
    • Range jump
    • Longer descending phrases
    • I'm going to get her
    • Range jump again
    • Tempo becomes faster
    • First performance was at the wedding of a royal family member
    • For this peri created a new way of imitating speech that became known as recitative style
    • Halfway between speech and singing
    • It's the first time that this is used
    • It's very dry
  26. Talk about Second practice
    • This second practice (segunda practica) that they set up created the groundwork for the baroque 
    • All about text driven vocal writing (stile rappresentativo) and the spare homophony (voice + basso continuo) 
    • Absolutely everything becomes text based
    • Harmony, melody, rhythm,  
    • Dissonance 
    • Could happen on strong beats
  27. claudio monteverdi
    • Writes in prima and seconda practica 
    • Prima is Palestrina 
    • Seconda is florentine Camerata
    • Writes his madrigals in books
    • 1-4 are in the rennissance style (prima practica
    • 5-end are in the baroque style (segunda practica)
    • First great opera composer
    • Wrote L'orfeo for the heir to the throne of mantua (316)
  28. Listening- cruda Amarilli
    • Writeen by montiverdi - madrigal
    • This madrigal was slammed by music critic Giovanni Maria Artusi
    •  Monteverdi responded to the criticism  with a letter that distinguish between first practice and his new second practice (298)
    •  He saw that each practice could be used when appropriate (300)
    • Both like old and new
    • Old fashioned madrigal
    • Homphony / polyphony and word painting
    • New madrigal
    • New treatment of dissonance
    • This is what separates it
    • Dissonance on the strong beats 
    • Breaks counterpoint rules
  29. L'Orfeo
    • monteverdi - opera
    • Wrote L'orfeo for the heir to the throne of mantua (316)
    • Librettist is Alessandro Striggio
    • Little more blood and guts and had much more drama 
    • Prologue + 5 acts
    • Listening - prologue
    • Melody is much more complex than peri's
    • Ritornello ( one of the reoccurring themes)
    • Sad overall mood 
    • Listening - excerpt from act 2
    • Orfeo singing about being excited about getting married
    • Real aria
    • Strophic
    • Large orchestration
    • Actually told people what instruments to use as well
    • Messenger comes in and tells Orfeo that his wife to be died
    • Much more realistic setting than peri
    • Interruptions in speech and realistic speech forms
    • Music is quite dissonant
    • Messengers range is narrow and her tempo fluctuates widely
    • Lots of descending lines
    • Extreamly emotional
    • Orfeo goes through disbelief > pissed > I'm going to get her
    • Slow with lots of dissonance then rises in range and power 
    • Anger drives him to go get her 
    • Chorus comes in
    • Second practice madrigal through and through
    • Just a bit of word paintings
    • Used a very large orchestra and modeled the forms after the Greek tragedy 
    • Also copied peri's use of monody
    • But included many other contrasting styles 
    • It had been around longer and was more developed now
    • He also wrote in his ornaments
    • Used recurring motives all through the opera
    • He eventually moved and continued to write many operas that were very successful
  30. Talk about the spread of opera
    • Opera spread slowly because it was expensive
    • When it did spread to Rome solo singing fell into two distinct types recitative and aria (322)
    • You didn't blend the two anymore
    • In Rome ( because women couldn't be on stage ) castrati became extremely popular and gained superstar status
    • Eventually spread to Venice where the first public opera house was opened in 1637
    • Flourished in this city 
    • Operas would be performed more than once and as a result they because more complex
    • Singers enjoyed large salaries and celebrity status
    • Touring companies spread from Venice and caused opera to spread faster than ever and permanent opera houses began to pop up
    • Monody based opera declines and aria and recitative is almost exclusively used
    • Golden age of Venetian opera was 1640-80
    • Huge amounts of opera houses caused some corruption and poor writing to sell tickets
    • Comedy scenes
    • To sell tickets 
    • Caused bad writing and plot interruptions
    • Special effects
    • Smoke and mirrors burned many opera houses to the ground 
    • Lots and lots of arias
    • Because star singers wanted more of them
    • Star singers began to run the show
    • Narrative monody really gets thrown out because of this
    • Pasticcio (pastiche)
    • Taking an aria from one opera and inserting it into another opera
  31. Francesco cavalli (1602-76)
    • Francesco cavalli (1602-76)
    • Part of the middle baroque 
    • Helped established the idea that you had to sell tickets so lots of arias are in his music 
    • Used lots of arias
    • Invented the idea of exit arias
    • They sing a long aria then leaves 
    • Tried to get applause so you could exit and change without issue
    • This becomes a major convention
  32. Marc Antonio casti (1623-69)
    • Marc Antonio casti (1623-69)
    • Part of the middle baroque
    • Helped establish the idea that you had to sell tickets so lots of arias are in his music 
    • Created Arioso
    • Lyrical passage with no set form 
    • Inbetween aria and recititive 
    • Helped create the bel canto style
    • New lyrical style
  33. Orontea
    • Listening Orontea - (1649?)
    • Opéra written by antonio casti
    • Bizarre comic scene with the drunk who is picking pockets 
    • Sleep aria 
    • Strophic aria 
    • Great example of bell canto
    • Has a long Ritornello that plays during much of the aria
  34. l'cornorzione di poppea
    • Listening opéra  - monteverdi's l'cornorzione di Poppea 
    • Monteverdi composed and buscenello was the librettist 
    • This is the last great monodic opera (based around monody)
    • Monteverdi has a great palette of monody
    • Poppea basically sleeps her way to the top and marries emperor Nero
    • Nero and Poppea wake up after a night of fun and Nero has to leave for a meeting
    • Poppea doesn't want him to go and she says he should stay but he has to go
    • He has to go and they argue back and forth 
    • Once Nero says he is going to divorce his wife Poppea lets him go
    • Music then becomes a dance 
    • Poppea is proud of herself 
    • Almost giggling while Nero is serious but happy (has to get a divorce now) and nervous
    • Nero then begins to go insane 
    • Because he agreed to the divorce 
    • We know this because in opera, fast coloratura singing means madness
    • There is lots of dissonance that is carefully used 
    • Monody changes rapidly and into many different styles
    • He uses these to show huge ranges of emotions and shades of those emotions
  35. Talk about monody
    • Spare homophony in baroque times
    • Influences EVERYTHING
    • Antonio Doni
    • Coined the word monody 
    • Thought it was Greek for solo song
    • Treble + basso continuo homphony
    • Concerto madrigals
    • When you add a voice or instrument to the monody
    • This is any piece that has 2 "leads"
    • 2 types
    • Madrigals
    • Not strophic
    • Arias
    • Strophic
    • It became more and more lyrical
    • Characteristics  
    • There are lots of repeated notes
    • Narrow range
    • Lots of ornamentation at cadences
    • Repeating bass lines were fairly common "ground bass"
    • Descending lines > lament
  36. cantata
    • Baroque cantata is the major chamber-vocal form 
    • Really popular around 1620-80 then they changed a lot
    • Is basically an extended vocal work (7-12 min long at this point) around a basic plot of some kind
    • Flows in and out of different forms and styles of monody 
    • Styles included lyrical/expressive and narrative/speech-like
  37. Giulio caccini
    • Giulio caccini (member of the florentine Camerata was the "house tenor"
    • Published the first major collection of monody called le nuove musicle
    • The new music
    • Responsible for launching the idea of solo singing
  38. Vedro'l Mio Sol
    • Listening, Caccini - solo madrigal- vedro'l mio sol
    •  expresses the text through ornamentation, dissonance, and how fast the text is said 
    • Song is in the form ABB
    • Decorated cadences
  39. Strozzi
    • Decorated cadences 
    • Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677) 
    • She was the bastard daughter of a nobleman
    • She showed a lot of talent at a young age (singer and harpsichordist) 
    • But she was quite well educated (unusual for women)
    • Probably a courtesan 
    • She was a well known composer of cantatas
  40. Lagrime Mie
    • Listening: Lagrime Mie - cantata
    • Written by Strozzi
    • From around the 1650's
    • This is a lament 
    • Descending opening line is the big clue
    • This opening section returns as a refrain
    • Flows between different types of monody
    • Emotions expressed by the text determine the style
    • Lots of dissonance 
    • Decorates the cadences
  41. Italian Vocal Chamber music
    • Most countries didn't have opera and instead most music was done in private 
    • In Italy canzonettas, ballettos, vinanelles, and other light generas of strophic songs were popular with the general public
    • Secular works in the concertato style
    • Works for solo voice (or a few solo voices) with basso continuo 
    • Included madrigals, dialogues and resisatitives
    • Concerted madrigal
    • Madrigals with instrumental accompaniment 
    • Madrigals become more and more complex
    • Ostinato basses
    • Pattern in the bass repeated while the melody above it changes
    • Very popular in Spain and Italy 
    • Cantata
    • A secular composition with continuo 
    • Usually for solo voice
    • Usually a lyrical or quasi-dramatic text
    • Has sections of aria, and recitative
    • Most were composed for private performances
    • Song outside Italy 
    • Other composers mimicked the tends in Italy 
    • Often however songs were highly nationalistic
  42. Catholic sacred music
    • Catholic sacred music
    • Used "sacred concertos" with religious text that incorporated basso continuo, monody, and operatic styles to bring religion to the fore
    • People still used the old style of Palestrina but the new style was often incorporated into the same piece
    • Prima practica was still the norm and was the standard
    • You could see a basso continuo
    • It was more metric and more homophonic (and inching towards tonality)

    • Large scale sacred concerto (grand motets)
    • Major feast days called for larger pieces and commonly were very long
    • Small sacred concertos (petit mmotets
    • These works were more popular because they were much less expensive than the larger works and could be taken on by any church
  43. Alessandro grandi
    • Monteverdi's deputy at st. Mark's
    • Very well known cantata writer
    • Flows through different styles of monody
    • He took these ideas and he adapted the genera for basso continuo and voice
    • Composed many solo motets that utilized the new style
    • Listening o quam tu pulchra es
    • About a man speaking to his wife about how he wants her to come to him
    • This was adapted from the Song of Songs 
    • Very lyrical
    • Has a refrain that repeats often
    • Any time he wants her to do something it gets dance like
  44. Stile concertato
    • Sacred concertos
    • All about contrasting forces

    a la gabrelli
  45. Giovanni Gabrieli
    • Giovanni Gabrieli
    • (1557-1612)
    • Worked in st marks basilica 
    • He is famous for his BRASS music and his stile concertato 
    • Cori spezzati
    • Split choirs
    • He is famous for this technique 
    • Listening in ecclesiis
    • Combines old fashioned polyphony with updated polyphony and segunda practica solos with stile concertato's
    • Voice + basso continuo used for solos 
    • Antiphonal choirs 
    • He combined voice, brass, and basso continuo together which was very new
  46. in ecclesiis
    • Gabrelli - sacred concerto (motet)
    • Combines old fashioned polyphony with updated polyphony and segunda practica solos with stile concertato's
    • Voice + basso continuo used for solos 
    • Antiphonal choirs 
    • He combined voice, brass, and basso continuo together which was very new
  47. music in convents
    • Most convent music was unheard of by the public
    • Experienced musicians were not allowed in to the convents to teach
    • Lucrezia vizzana 
    • Trained by an aunt and organist and the convent's music head 
    • She was a great composer
    • Chiara margarita cozzolani 
    • Great composer nun with 4 published collections of sacred concertos
    • Oratorio
    • Religious opera 
    • Seldom staged 
    • Giacomo Carissimi was a huge composer
  48. giacomo Carissimi
    • giacomo Carissimi was a huge composer of convent music 
    •  Huge influence on creating tonality
    • Uses many sequences
    • Applies contata principals to an extended work
  49. jephte
    Giacomo Carissimi - oratorio

    • Involves multiple choirs and soloists
    • Lots of sequences (they are everywhere)
    • They tend to be on I and V
    • Tonality appears in this piece
    • Aria sung by jephte 's daughter when she finds out she has to be sacrificed 
    • She is lamenting and She is going crazy
    • Each stroph has a new harmony
    • Choir then enters and sings 
    • Lament in  a madrigal style then a fugue
    • Fugue is very tonal!
  50. Lutheran church music
    • Used the new compositional styles with sacred text
    • Small concertos were more common
    • Everyone sung in Lutherans church
    • Sung hymns at every mass ( called chorales)
    • Were monophonic 
    • Lutherans are doing 3 things in music at the beginning of their church
    • 1) writing chorale tunes
    • 2) writing homophonic 4 part settings
    • 3)writing organ settings of chorales
  51. Henrich schutz
    • Master at applying the new Italian styles styles to church music 
    • Wrote the first German opera in 1627
    • Huge choral composer and was highly prolific 
    • Worked in Dresden 
    • Court had a huge amount of money for music
    • But lost it before he got there from war
    • He wrote a huge book of music for them ( kleine geistliche konzerke ) 
    • Listening ol liber
    • Cross between polyphony and 2nd practice
    • In German 
    • 2 out of tune boys
    • Shows the influence of Monteverdi 
    • They got more money and got their wealth back
    • Listening: Saul
    • Studied with Gabrieli ( first practice) , and Monteverdi (2nd practice)
    • 3 big books early in his career then 3 more later 
    • Music because more and more complex and included instruments over time
    • Jewish music
  52. Listgening Saul verfolgst du mich
    • by Schultz
    • -sacred concerto
    • Story of Saul and his conversion
    • All about Gabrieli
    • Solos are in the second practice
    • Chorus is homphonic 
    • Alternations between huge chorus and soloist
    • Good at taking short texts and expanding it into a big thing
    • Multiple chorus's
    • 3 choirs, 2 soloists, organ, and instruments
    • Dissonance with homophonic texture
  53. insttrumetnal muisc
    • Instrument music 
    • Instrumental music becomes it's own thing ( not a vocal piece rewritten) 
    • New growth of absolute music (music for music)
    • Very influenced by monody especially in violin music 
    • Early ensemble music 
    • Trio texture - two violins + basso continuo 
    • Important new texture
    • Viol's are now out of style and are replaced by violin
    • Musicians (players) became very important and were traded as money almost 
    • Virtuosos were extremely important
    • Guitar and theorbo become important continuo instruments
  54. big violin makers
    • Lots of development in instruments and their technique
    • First violins were by the Amati family 
    • Late 16th - early 17th century
    • Another was the Stradivari family
    • Stradivarius violins today are from this family 
    • Another was the Guarneri family
  55. Mauricio cazzati
    One of the first violin teachers Created a huge violin school in bologna He helped create/promote the idea of an instrumental professional that was virtuosic
  56. Biagio Marini
    • Biagio Marini 
    • Composer who wrote music with tables of ornaments (which ones to use) that were extremely virtuosic 
    • His sonatas broke away from the renaissance consort and into true soloist (harpsichord and violin) style, also had trio sonatas
    • Because of how he composed he created violin technique
    • Listening - sonata IV per sonar con due corede
    • Catalogue of early baroque gestures 
    • A lot like a cantata
  57. Listening - sonata IV per sonar con due corede
    • Catalogue of early baroque gestures 
    • A lot like a cantata
    • written by Marini - sonata
  58. Types of instrumental music
    • Pieces were either improvisatory, fugal, or sectional 
    • Tocatta
    • Played on organ or harpsichord
    • Has a repeated cadence in order to keep motion
    • Big composer was Frescobaldi 
    • Ricercari and fugue
    • For organ or harpsichord
    • Imitatitive piece
    • Ricercari is not quite tonal but a fugue is tonal
    • Fantasia (fantasy)
    • Large imitative work with formal organization
    • Canzona
    • Imitatitive piece with several sections
    • Sonata
    • Any piece for solo instrument 
    • Big composer was biagio marini
    • Variations 
    • Sets of variations on existing themes
    • Passacaglia is a common form or a chaconne is another
    • Dance pieces
    • Many new pieces meant for dancing 
    • Many types of improvisatory pieces
    • Included the tocatta, prelude, fastasy
    • Were very virtuosic
    • Many chorale based pieces (usually for organ)
  59. Salomone Rossi
    • Extremely famous Jewish composer
    • He didn't have many of the Jewish judgements placed on him becasue he was so famous
    • Helped develop instrumental music
    • Wrote a series of "Jewish motets"
    • Very different from other Jewish music
    • Helped make trio texture 
    • Which Became the model for the next 50 years
  60. Girolamo Frescobaldi
    • ncredibly influential composer of the early baroque
    • Sets up Italian keyboard music which influenced all instrumental music
    • Organist and harpsichordist 
    • Worked as an organist in St. Peter's in Rome
    • Wrote the first book of music published for harpsichord
  61. Listening: tocatta
    • Listening: tocatta 
    • by frescabaldi 
    • Very sectionalized (so he can stop at any time during the mass)
    • Many "personalities" of music
    • Iots of different musical gestures 
    • Very dramatic and virtuosic 
    • Writes in ornamentation 
    • So he can teach his students how to do it
  62. Listening: ricercari - fiori musicali
    Fiori musicali

    • by frescibaldi 
    • Collection of organ music for the mass
    • Early fugue
    • Out of tune organ 
    • Sounds very similar to bach (Bach was influenced by him)
  63. King Louis XIV
    • King Louis XIV 
    • Absolute monarch (king at 5 and took the throne at 23) 
    • "Sun king"
    • Used the arts as propaganda 
    • Redefined French culture in his own image
    • His taste was French culture
    • Everything glorified the ruler
    • He rebuilt the louvre 
    • Was origional palace but is now a museum 
    • Built the Versailles palace
    • In order to not only show opulence and to control the nobility (since they lived there for large portions of the year)
  64. french court ballet
    • The court ballet
    • Had flourished since the 1580s
    • Ballet de cour
    • Fully staged and danced music drama
    • Featured professional dancers alongside members of the court
    • A substantial music drama staged with costumes and scenery that featured members of the court alongside performers 
    • Contained several acts that include solo songs, choirs, and instrumental music
    • Used as a tool to show that the king was the most important and to keel nobles busy 
    • Offered a model of discipline
    • Dance became important in any theatrical production
  65. french opera
    • L'académie d' opéra
    • Opened in 1672
    • Is an opera house 
    • French opera was
    • Lots of free flow between recititive and short arias
    • Ballet was also a very important aspect of any opera
    • Enjoyed lots of spectacle (had a large chorus)
    • Lots of emotion and drama
    • This aesthetic stuck and stayed the same for a long time
    • These basic concepts stay the same forever (may be updated but is still the same)
  66. french court music
    • Music at court
    • King Louis created the first large string ensembles to be used in court
    • Considered the precursors to modern orchestras
    •  French music was regal and defined
    • Designed as much for the players enjoyment as much as the listeners enjoyment
    • Performers had to add lots of ornamentation do the sound was very different than the page
    • Keyboard and violin music didn't hit France too much
    • The lute and theorbo were still common (see below)
  67. Jean baptist Lully and French opera
    • Jean baptist Lully and French opera
    • Louis xiv's fave musician (but he's Italian from Florence)
    • Wrote music for ballets and religious services but earned his greatest success with dramatic music 
    • This dramatic music created a distinctive French operatic style that persisted for over a century
    • Cardinal Mazarin tried to create a French opera style 
    • The operas he commissioned were sung in Italian and met opposition on political and artistic grounds 
    • After this Lully combined ideas and musical ideals from these two operas and created ballet music from them (not full operas yet)
    • King Louis then gave him money and permission to create sung drama in France. And establish a royal academy of music 
    • Together with his playwrite (Jean Philippe quinault)  he created a new form of French opera known as tragedie en Musique which later became tragedie lyrique
    • They combined serious plots with frequent singing interludes (divertissements) 
    • Divertissements were still serious and contained dance and music
    • Texts were aligned with king Louis's ideals and they often praised him directly 
    • Music was broken into several parts
    • Overture 
    • For when the king entered the hall (this welcomes the king and audience into the hall)
    • 2 sections each played twice
    • 1st section is slow, stately, homophonic and majestic with many dotted rhythems
    • 2 nd section is faster and begins similar to a fugue then returns to the splendor of the beginning
    • Then you had acts
    • Each act was separated from the next by a divertissement
    • This could also appear in the middle of the act
    • Allowed for great singing and elaborate dancing 
    • He applied to Italian recitative style to French speech
    • It is a bit more song like 
    • This music is tonal
  68. Listening - armide excerpts
    • Listening - armide excerpts - opera
    • One of 11 great operas by Lille and quinault
    • Opens with an overture 
    • Welcoming the king into the hall
    • Many dotted rhythms
    • Very flowing between recititive and aria
    • Recititive simple - dry recititive - non metrical - compleatly driven by words
    • Recititive mesuree - more in tempo
    • Armide deciding weather or not to kill her lover
    • Much more lyrical than Italian recititive because of the nature of the French language and the French style
    • French have a stylistic point called inégale which means inequality
    • Creates almost a swing in their music 
    • Present in this music
    • Not strophic (but is an aria)
    • Aab structure
    • Very dancy
    • Very short
  69. te deum
    • Listening- te Deum - grand motet
    • Huge orchestration
    • Lully composed
  70. french church music
    • Church music
    • Moved from counterpoint to the newer Italian styles
    • Also wrote motets on Latin texts 
    • Petit motet
    • A sacred concerto for a few voices with continuo
    • Grand motet
    • Often for soloists, double chorus, and orchestra
    • Lully was a master of grand motets
  71. Marc Antoine Charpentier
    • Marc Antoine Charpentier introduced the Latin oratorio into France 
    • Combined the Italian and French styles of recitative and air 
    • Usually assigned chorus a large role 
    • Messe de Minuit de Noel 
    • Wrote lots of great music
  72. Lute and keyboard music
    • Denis gaulthier was the major composer
    • Wrote la rhetorique des dieux 
    • The rhetoric of the gods
    • Had many cute titles for music (all French music was like this because music wasn't just for professionals anymore
    • Listening la courcette virtoso 
    • By Gauthier 
    • Would create the melody out of broken chords
    • Often not more than one or two notes playing at a time
    • Only do you occasionally hear chords
    • Was a courrante 
    • Elegant and refined or frilly 
    • French composers would decorate individual notes
    • Helped establish an esthetic for keyboard music by how he wrote for lute
  73. la courcette virtoso
    • By Gauthier - courante 
    • Would create the melody out of broken chords
    • Often not more than one or two notes playing at a time
    • Only do you occasionally hear chords
    • Was a courrante 
    • Elegant and refined or frilly 
    • French composers would decorate individual notes
  74. french Dance music
    • Dance music 
    • Most dance music wasn't meant from dancing but for listening 
    • Most were in bianary form 
    • Grouped dances in to a dance suite 
    • Many suites began with an unmeasured prelude 
    • Piece with Nonmetrical notation that allowed rhythmic freedom as if improvising
  75. Johann jakob froberger
    • Johann jakob froberger 
    • Worked all over the world 
    • Combined  what he learned from frescabaldi with stil lorise 
    • Helped create the dance site
    • He created a standard shape and structure
    • Allemande, 
    • From Germany with a moderate tempo 
    • courante, 
    • From France, moderate with a compound time
    • saraband,
    • Latin American by way of Spain, slow in triple meter (32 or 64)
    •  gigue 
    • Celtic dance, usually in 38 it's fast and has lots of leaps
    • You could work on this and add preludes or other danses into it
    • Chacone  was often added
  76. Elizabeth Claude jacquet we la guerre
    • Born into a very musical family
    • Was a child prodigy 
    • Was an important person in the kings court
    • Her suites had many ornaments and had a table in the back of how to use them
  77. Listening: suite number three in a minor
    • Extremely ornamented- suite
    • " Goo fest"
    • Dance suite 
    • Very distinctive of the types of pieces
    • Added a Chacone 
    • A section keeps returning
  78. Louis coupelin
    • Created the unmeasured prelude
    • Allows the player great rhythmic freedom
    • Allows for lots of ornamentation
    • Ultimate stile brise
  79. o quam tu pulchra es
    • About a man speaking to his wife about how he wants her to come to him
    • This was adapted from the Song of Songs 
    • Very lyrical
    • Has a refrain that repeats often
    • Any time he wants her to do something it gets dance like

    written by grandi - solo motet
  80. o lieber herre gott
    • Cross between polyphony and 2nd practice
    • In German 
    • 2 out of tune boys
    • Shows the influence of Monteverdi
    •  schultz- sacred concerto
  81. La purpura de. La rosa
    • by velasco
    • first opera in the new world
    • Written in celebration of a new Spanish king
    • Very repetitive
  82. Los coflades de la esteya
    by araijo - villancio

    • contrasting voices
    • like a vrialle or ballade
  83. Who created the zarzuela
    hildago and de la barca
  84. Dido and aeneas
    • purcell - opera
    • combined the French overture ballet English madrigals an Italian arias

    written for girls school