Grammar Terms

Card Set Information

Author:
atbalken
ID:
283638
Filename:
Grammar Terms
Updated:
2014-09-21 00:18:16
Tags:
grammar
Folders:

Description:
Grammar Terms
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user atbalken on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Noun
    A noun is a word for a person, place, or thing. (You might like to think of nouns as naming words.)
  2. Adjective
    • Adjectives are describing words. 
    • Large, grey and friendly are all examples of adjectives.
  3. Adverb
    • An adverb can be added to a verb to modify its meaning.
    • Usually, an adverb tells you when, where, how, in what manner, or to what extent an action is performed.
    • Many adverbs end in ly — particularly those that are used to express how an action is performed.
    • Although many adverbs end ly, lots do not, e.g., fast, never, well, very, most, least, more, less, now, far, and there.
  4. Conjunctions
    • Conjunctions are used to join words or groups of words together.
    • The most common ones are and, or, and but. (There are many others.)
  5. Interjections
    • Interjections are words used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion.
    • They are included in a sentence - usually at the start - to express a sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement or enthusiasm.
  6. Preposition
    • A preposition is a word which precedes a noun (or a pronoun) to show the noun's (or the pronoun's) relationship to another word in the sentence.
    • (The word preposition comes from the idea of being positioned before. It is not true to say that a preposition always precedes a noun or a pronoun, but it does most of the time.)
    • The following are all prepositions:
    • above, about, across, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, since, to, toward, through, under, until, up, upon, with and within.
  7. Pronoun
    • Most of the time, a pronoun is used to replace a noun.
    • The following are all pronouns: he, she, they, none, and which.
    • There are lots more. As you can see, pronouns are usually short words.
    • They are used to make sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
  8. Verb
    • Verbs are doing words.
    • A verb can express:
    • A physical action (e.g., to swim, to write, to climb).
    • A mental action (e.g., to think, to guess, to consider).
    • A state of being (e.g., to be, to exist, to appear).

    • The verbs which express a state of being are the ones which take a little practice to spot, but, actually, they are the most common.
    • The most common verb is the verb to be.
  9. Phrases
    • A phrase is a group of words that stand together as a single unit, typically as part of a clause or a sentence.
    • A phrase does not contain a subject and verb and, consequently, cannot convey a complete thought.
    • (A phrase contrasts with a clause. A clause does contain a subject and verb, and it can convey a complete idea.)
  10. Clause
    • A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a verb.
    • A clause can be distinguished from a phrase, which does not contain a subject and a verb (e.g., in the afternoon, drinking from the bowl).
    • An independent clause can express a complete thought (and can be a standalone sentence).
    • A dependent clause is usually a supporting part of a sentence, and it cannot stand by itself as a meaningful proposition (idea).
  11. Subordinating Conjunctions
    • A subordinating conjunction is used to link a subordinate clause (also known as a dependent clause) to the main clause (also known as an independent clause). 
    • In each example below, the main clause is in bold, and the subordinating conjunction is shaded.
    • She left early because Mike arrived with his new girlfriend.
    • Keep your hand on the wound until the nurse asks you to take it off.
  12. Modifiers
    • A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause which functions as an adjective or an adverb to describe a word or make its meaning more specific.
    • Examples of Modifiers:
    • Modifiers can play the roles of adjectives or adverbs.

    • Modifiers As Adjectives:
    • When a modifier is an adjective, it modifies a noun or a pronoun. (In these examples, the modifiers are shaded, and the words being modified are bold).
    • Lee caught a small mackerel.(Here, the adjective small modifies the noun mackerel.)
    • Lee caught a small mackerel.(Don't forget that articles (i.e., the, an, and a) are adjectives too.
    • Here, a modifies the noun mackerel as does small.)
    • Lee caught another one.(Here, the adjective another modifies the pronoun one.)

    • Modifiers As Adverbs:
    • When a modifier is an adverb, it modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
    • For example:
    • Lee accidentally caught a small whelk.(Here, the adverb accidentally modifies the verb caught.)
    • Lee caught an incredibly small mackerel.(Here, the adverb incredibly modifies the adjective small.)
    • Lee supposedly accidentally caught a small whelk.(Here, the adverb supposedly modifies the adverb accidentally.)

    • A Modifier Can Be a Phrase or a Clause:
    • Don't forget that phrases and clauses can play the roles of adjectives and adverbs too.
    • For example:
    • Lee caught a mackerel smaller than a Mars bar.(This is an adjective phrase modifying the noun mackerel.)
    • Lee caught a mackerel of tiny proportions.(This is a prepositional phrase functioning as an adjective. It modifies the noun mackerel.)
    • Lee caught a mackerel which was smaller than a Mars bar.(This is an adjective clause modifying mackerel.)
    • When alone, Lee tried to catch mackerel.(This is an adverbial phrase (of time) modifying the verb tried.)
    • When we left him alone, Lee set up his rod to catch mackerel.(This is an adverbial clause (of time) modifying the verb set up.)
  13. Subject
    • The subject of a sentence is the person or thing doing the action or being described.
    • For example (subjects shaded):
    • Lee ate the pie.(Lee is the subject of the sentence. Lee is the subject of the main verb ate; i.e., Lee is the doing the action.) 
    • Lee is putting on weight.(Lee is the subject of the sentence. Lee is the subject of the main verb is; i.e., Lee is being described.)
  14. Predicate
    • The predicate is the part of a sentence (or clause) which tells us what the subject does or is.
    • To put it another way, the predicate is everything that is not the subject.

    • At the heart of the predicate is a verb. In addition to the verb, a predicate can contain direct objects, indirect objects, and various kinds of phrases. 
    • A sentence has two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject is what the sentence is about, and the predicate is a comment about the subject.
  15. Cases
    • Grammatical case pertains to nouns and pronouns.
    • A noun's or a pronoun's case shows its relationship with the other words in a sentence.
    • The main cases you will encounter in English are:
    • The Subjective Case (or Nominative Case)
    • The Possessive Case (or Genitive Case)
    • The Objective Case (or Accusative Case or Dative Case)
    • The Vocative Case
  16. Subjective (Nominative) Case
    • The subjective case is for a noun or pronoun that is the subject of a verb.
    • For example:
    • Anne went to the shop. 
    • She went to the shop.
    • The subjective case is also used for a subject complement.
    • For example:
    • Bill is a policeman.
    • It is he.(In informal writing, the objective case (him) can be used.)
  17. Possessive (Genitive) Case
    • The possessive case is used to show possession. With nouns, it is shown with an apostrophe. (Read the rules about using apostrophes for possession.)
    • For example:
    • This is Anne's bag.
    • This is her bag.
  18. Objective Case
    • The objective case is for a noun or pronoun that is either the direct object or indirect object of a verb or the object of a preposition.
    • For example:
    • I visited Anne.
    • I visited her.
    • Take me to her.
  19. Vocative Case
    • The vocative case is used to indicate when a person (usually) is being addressed directly.
    • In terms of spelling, it is identical to the subjective case.
    • However, words in the vocative case should be offset from the remainder of the sentence with comma(s).
    • For example:
    • Paul, is this your tent peg?
    • You, get off my lawn.
  20. Transitive Verb
    • A transitive verb is a verb that can take a direct object.
    • In other words, it is done to someone or something.
    • Most verbs are transitive.
  21. Intransitive Verb
    • An intransitive verb is one that does not take a direct object.
    • In other words, it is not done to someone or something.
    • It only involves the subject.The opposite of an intransitive verb is a transitive verb.
    • A transitive verb can have a direct object.
    • For example:
    • He laughed.(Laughed is an intransitive verb. It has no direct object. You cannot laugh something.)

    • Every single person voted.
    • The jackdaws roost in these trees.
    • The crowd demonstrated outside the theatre.(In this example, demonstrated is an intransitive verb. However, to demonstrate can be used transitively too, e.g., He demonstrated a karate chop to the class.)
  22. Linking Verb
    • A linking verb is a verb which connects a subject to its predicate without expressing an action.
    • A linking verb is used to re-identify or describe its subject.
  23. Helping Verb
    • A helping verb (which is also known as an auxiliary verb) sits before a main verb to help express the main verb's mood, tense, or voice.
    • Be, do, and have are the most common helping verbs.
    • You will see them in these forms:Be: am, is, are, was, were, being, beenDo: does, do, didHave: has, have, had, having
  24. Passive Sentence
    • In a passive sentence, the subject does not perform the action in the sentence.
    • In fact, the action is performed on it.

    Nowadays, black kites are protected.(The action is being done to the subject, black kites.)
  25. Active Sentence
    • In an active sentence, the subject performs the action of the verb.
    • An active sentence is the opposite of a passive sentence.
    • Examples:
    • The dog ate all the biscuits.(In this example, The dog is the subject of the sentence. 
    • The dog is the subject of the verb to eat. 
    • The dog is performing the action of the verb; i.e., it is the thing doing the eating.)
  26. Definite Article & Indefinite Article
    • The definite article is the word the.
    • It is used before a noun to specify it as something previously considered.
    • There are two types of articles:
    • The Definite Article (the)
    • The Indefinite Article (a and an).
    • The articles are classified as adjectives.
  27. Prepositional Phrase
    A prepositional phrase is phrase that starts with a preposition and ends with noun (or a pronoun).
  28. Prepositional Phrases Functioning As Adjectives
    • Prepositional Phrases Function As Adjectives or Adverbs
    • Answering: Which one, how many, whose, what kind?
    • Here are some more examples of prepositional phrases.
    • In each example, the prepositional phrase is shaded with the preposition in bold.
    • Be aware that prepositional phrases function as adjectives or adverbs.
    • Prepositional phrases functioning as adjectives:
    • Please read the message from Lee.(The prepositional phrase describes the noun message.)
  29. Prepositional Phrases Functioning As Adverbs
    • Prepositional Phrases Function As Adjectives or Adverbs
    • Answering: How, why, when , where?
    • Here are some more examples of prepositional phrases. 
    • In each example, the prepositional phrase is shaded with the preposition in bold. 
    • Be aware that prepositional phrases function as adjectives or adverbs.
    • Lee caught a small mackerel with utmost pride.(The prepositional phrase modifies the verb caught. It is an adverb of manner; i.e., it tells us how he caught it.)
  30. Verbal Phrases
    • A verbal is a verb form which functions as a noun or an adjective.
    • In English, there are three types of verbals:
    • Participles (past participles and present participles).
    • Gerunds
    • Infinitives
  31. Gerunds (Verbal Phrases)
    • A gerund is a noun formed from a verb.
    • All gerunds end -ing.
    • For example:
    • swimmingrunningdrinking
    • Even though a gerund is a noun, a gerund can still take a direct object (like a verb).
    • This is known as a gerund complement.
    • For example:
    • swimming the lake
    • running a mile
    • drinking a beer
  32. Participles (Verbal Phrases)
    • A participle is a word formed from a verb which can be used as an adjective.
    • The two types of participles are the present participle (ending ing) and the past participle (usually ending -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n).
  33. Infinitive (Verbal Phrases)
    • The infinitive form of a verb is the verb in its basic form.
    • It is the version of the verb which will appear in the dictionary. 
    • The infinitive form of a verb is usually preceded by to (e.g., to run, to dance, to think).
    • The infinitive form is not always preceded by to.
    • Look at these examples:
    • I need to run every day.(The infinitive form with the word to is called the full infinitive or to-infinitive.) 
    • I must run every day.(After certain verbs, the to is dropped (more on this below).)
    • run every day.(This is not in the infinitive form. This is a finite verb, i.e., a verb functioning as the main verb.)
  34. Dangling Modifier
    • A dangling modifier is a modifier that has nothing to modify.
    • Remember, modifiers describe a word or make its meaning more specific.
    • A dangling modifier is an error caused by failing to use the word that the modifier is meant to be describing.

    • Meticulous and punctual, David's work ethic is admirable. 
    • In this example, the missing word is David (as a standalone subject).
    • A correct version would be:
    • Meticulous and punctual, David has an admirable work ethic. (In this example, the modifier Meticulous and punctual is modifying David as it should, not David's work ethic.)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview